Thursday, 16 June 2016

Equivalence of Rank - Secular Postions with Ecclesiastical Ones

Gilbert, bishop of Limerick, around 1139  produced a document about hierarchy in the Western Church on the equivalence in the hierarchical rank of ecclesiastical posts relative to secular ones.

As far as I know this document had no official status in its time.

Patrologia Latina Tome 159: Cols 997-1004
De Statu Ecclesiae

Rosamond McKitterick (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History: pts. 1-2. c. 1024-c. 1198. Footnote 2: Cambridge University Press. pp. 368–. ISBN 978-0-521-41410-4..

Coniungitur autem imperator papae, rex primati, dux archipontifici, comes episcopo,
miles sacerdoti, quia istae personae pares illis saecularibus iure decernuntur.

Joined with the Emperor is the pope, the King with the primate, the Duke with the archbishop,
The Earl/Count with a bishop, The knight with a priest, because it is decreed that these parsons are equal to those secular law voted.

Wednesday, 15 June 2016

The Becket Conflict

A very succinct summary of what the Becket Conflict was all about and its causes, and origins has been written in German:-

by Wejwod Marek (2000)
Automated Translation by Google Translate -

Herbert of Bosham describes the Conflict:-

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket. Volume III Herhert of Bosham Vita S. Thomae Liber III Cap. 24: Cambridge University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6.

O rex et o pontifex, quorum utrumque Dei apprehendit emulatio! Hic zelat populi sui pacem, alter vero cleri sui libertatem.

O King, O Pontiff, both of whom vying with each other have the zeal to be the equal of God, which has taken hold of both of them! one desirous for the peace of his people, the other for the liberty of his clergy.

Herbert of Bosham puts his summary of the Conflict into two chapters

Fisher, M. Ann Kathleen, "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket By Herbert Bosham (Part Two)" (1947).
Master's Theses. Paper 171.

Book III
p.47  §23. The King Declares in Favor of the Peace of His People
p.49  §24. The Archbishop Declares in Favor of the Liberty of His Clergy.

In Latin:
Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury
Vita Sancti Thomae
Auctore: Hereberti De Boseham
Liber III: Capitula 23 et 24


Monday, 13 June 2016

John of Salisbury Blames Satan

John of Salisbury in his hagiography on the Life of Saint Thomas Becket, §12 blames Satan for the Troubles.

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Cambridge University Press. pp. 273–. ISBN 978-1-108-04926-9.

Patrologia Latina
Ioannes Saresberiensis Alanus Tewkesburiensi

Jacques-Paul Migne (1894). Patrologiae cursus completus Latina. Tome 190. Brepols..

Videns autem hostis antiquus tantum virum Ecclesiae Dei plurimum profuturum, invidit, et ne sperata pace terra diutius frueretur, multos et magnos elegit discordiae concitatores: per quos in corde regis et curialium odii seminarium sparsit. (0200C) Orta siquidem his procurantibus quaestione super regni consuetudinibus et iure ecclesiastico, filios perditionis in perniciem sancti viri excitavit qui subvertere moliebantur Ecclesiae libertatem. Sed cum omnes opprimerentur, Cantuariensis Ecclesia ipsum magis angebat, cuius potestati honori et utilitati plurimum derogabatur, insurgentibus in eum primum Rogero Eboracensi archiepiscopo, deinde proceribus multis, et his qui fidelitate et beneficiis Ecclesiae tenebantur obnoxii et ipso rege prohibente saepius et pertinacius ne in subditos culpis exigentibus canonicam iustitiam exerceret. Potestas enim laica in res et personas omnium pro libito ecclesiastico iure contempto, tacentibus aut murmurantibus episcopis, potius quam resistentibus usurpabat. (0200D) Conatus est ergo rex archiepiscopum promissis et blanditiis ad suum inclinare consensum. Sed vir Domini, fundatus in petra et solidatus, nec blanditiis emolliri potuit, ut a cultu iustitiae deviaret, nec minis terreri.


"Nevertheless the ancient enemy [Satan] when he saw that the very great man of the Church of God [Becket]  would very soon do much good, he became envious. And lest the peace on Earth which was for a long while being enjoyed he [Satan] chose many from the great [of the land], including the king and members of his court, through whose hearts he could use them as instigators of discord, and to scatter seeds of hate, there indeed, by instigating issues over the customs of the realm and the law of the Church, But even though all the Churches were being suppressed, the Church [See] of Canterbury caused him [Becket] the greatest anxiety, most of whose power, honour, and usefulness were being taken away [from it] by the rising up into first place of Roger archbishop of York,  and then by the guilty, including many magnates and those who owed fealty and held benefices of the Church. And even the the king often more stubbornly disallowed the purging of the sins of  his subjects by means of the exercise of canonical justice [Canon Law]. Indeed the temporal power seized goods and persons entirely at its own pleasure holding in contempt ecclesiastical law, with the bishops remaining silent or murmuring, rather than resisting. The king tried with promises and flatteries to incline the archbishop to his point of view. But the man of the Lord, who was founded on rock and firm in intent, neither could he be placated by flatteries, which might deviate him from serving justice, nor could he be terrified by threats."

Saturday, 11 June 2016

Plot To Murder Becket, October 1164

Threat to murder Becket immediately after his trial at Northampton

John of Salisbury, Life of Becket: paragraph 18

 Curn autem se in hospitium recepisset, duo magni et fidelissimi proceres ad eum in ipso noctis conticinio accesserunt, vultu miserabiles et lacrimosi, tundentes pectora sua, et confitentes ac protestantes per tremendum judicium Dei, quod indubitanter sciebant viros magnos, et malefactis insignes, ut pote multis pollutos facinoribus, in illius neceт conspirasse, et se ad eum occidendum mutuis invicem astrinxisse juramentis. Ne ergo causa ecclesiae, quae nondum plene innotuerat, in morte ejus pateretur occasum, eadem nocte fugam aggressus est, et uno duntaxat frater sibi ferente solatium, diebus delitescens et noctibus iter peragens, post diem decimum sextum ad portum Sandvici pervenit, et quum potiores vectores non haberet ad manum, in fragili cymbala a duobus sacerdotibus transvectus est in Flandriam, paucis aliis navigium potius impedientibus quam aliquam solatii vel auxilii ferentibus opem.

After, however, he had returned to his lodgings, two great and most faithful nobles came to him that same evening, weeping and with downcast faces. beating their breasts, confessing and protesting, swearing on the terrible judgement of God, that they definitely knew of important men, and [other] evil-minded prominent persons, who were without doubt guilty of many grave and wicked deeds, who were plotting to murder him, and who had combined together having taken reciprocal and mutual oaths with each other to kill him.

Therefore lest the cause of the [Liberty of the] Church, which had not yet become widely known, might be ruined by his death, that same night he set about escaping. And together with only one brother whom he brought with him for comfort, hiding by day and travelling by night eventually he reached the port of Sandwich after sixteen days. And when there were no other better boats for ferrrying to hand, the two priests were borne across the sea to Flanders in a frail skiff [cymba: small rowing boat possibly with a sail] with a few others on board hindering the boat rather than being of any comfort or assistance, or rendering any service.

The same story is described in Thomas Saga Erkibyskups

Eiríkr Magnússon . Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 227–9. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.

Late in the evening of that very day there come to the archbishop two men of noble kin and good friends of his, both being in sore tribulation and bringing the tidings from the king's court, that certain persons, right far famed for evil deeds, have allied themselves together so to incur the wrath of God, as to have the life of the archbishop even before their meal the next morning. Lord Thomas then weigheth in his mind this matter, and the danger wherein he now standeth, and wisely considereth, that the cause of the church is yet less known throughout Christendom than it behoveth such a mighty matter to be ; and therefore feareth he, if he suffer death even at this time, that it may be deemed to have come to pass rather through some private guilt of his own, than through his defence of the freedom of God's right; and that the church might reap thereof some detriment rather than any righting. He therefore maketh up his mind, rather to make good an escape, now first for a while, after the example of the blessed apostle Paul, when he fled from Damascus anight-time, for a more enduring profit of holy church.


Friday, 3 June 2016

Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: Murder in the Cathedral

Eiríkr Magnússon. Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. Volume 1 Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.

Chapter 76 Concerning Four Knights, The Enemies of God

Chapter 77 Concerning The Holy Thomas, How He Prophesied His Martyrdom

Chapter 78 How the Enemies of God Spoke Evil Against The Holy Archbishop Thomas
Eiríkr Magnússon . Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. KAP. LXXVIII: Cambridge University Press. pp. 522–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.
Eiríkr Magnússon. Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. Chapter 78: Cambridge University Press. pp. 523–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.

Chapter 79 How the Knights Came Back To Their Followers
Eiríkr Magnússon. Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. KAP LXXIX: Cambridge University Press. pp. 532–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.
Eiríkr Magnússon (1875). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups0: In Icelandic, with English Translation, Notes and Glossary. Chapter 79: Longman. pp. 533–.

Chapter 80 The Death of Archbishop Thomas
Eiríkr Magnússon (1875). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups0: In Icelandic, with English Translation, Notes and Glossary. KAP. LXXX: Longman. pp. 542–.
iríkr Magnússon (1875). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups0: In Icelandic, with English Translation, Notes and Glossary. Chapter 80: Longman. pp. 543–.

Edward Grim: Murder in the cathedral

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Altercation with the four knights according to Edward Grim: Whittaker. pp. 318–.



Wilfred Lewis Warren (1977). Henry II. University of California Press. pp. 510–. ISBN 978-0-520-03494-5.

W. H. Hutton (1889), St Thornas of Canterbury, pp. 256-

William Fitzstephen: Murder in the Cathedral

William Fitzstephen
In Latin
Corpus Corporum  Universität Zürich
Patrologia Latina
Willelmus filius Stephani
Col  0179D Quinto igitur natalis die ...

Patrologiae cursus completus: sive biblioteca universalis,integra uniformis, commoda, oeconomica, omnium SS. Patrum, doctorum scriptorumque eccelesiasticorum qui ab aevo apostolico ad usque Innocentii III tempora floruerunt ... [Series Latina, in qua prodeunt Patres, doctores scriptoresque Ecclesiae Latinae, a Tertulliano ad Innocentium III]. Patrologia Latina Tome 190 Column 0179D. 1854.

Patres ecclesiae anglicanae : Aldhelmus, Beda, Bonifacius, Alcuinus, Lanfrancus, Anselmus, Thomas Cantuar, et reliqui. J.-H. Parker. 1845. pp. 293–.

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (Canonized by Pope Alexander III, AD 1173). Volume III. Martyrdom of Becket by William Fitzstephen: Cambridge University Press. pp. 132-. ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6. Archive.Org Link

Translated into English

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2. History or the contest between Thomas à Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and Henry II, king of England, chiefly consisting of translations of contemporary letters. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 552–8.  
An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket (Part Two)
by William Fitzstephen trans. Mary Aelred Sinclair 
Loyola University Chicago

Keith Sidwell (1995). Reading Medieval Latin. Section 19: Historical Writing - Murder of Thomas Becket by William FitzStephen,: Cambridge University Press. pp. 260–. ISBN 978-1-107-39334-9.