Saturday, 29 June 2013

Salvo Ordine Meo - Saving My Order

Salvo ordine meo [saving my order], the central phrase in all the Becket Dispute upon which neither Becket and Henry II could agree. Henry thought is would deny him absolute control over the Church in England, and Becket required that clerics should be allowed their own personal conscience and dignity in their ecclesiastical roles when observing the so-called  customs of the kingdom. It is therefore of importance to understand what the phrase actually meant, and its legal and/or theological usage. 

Its literal meaning is essentially excepting the duty and honour owed to God and His Church, and the dignity of the office that the oath-taker holds within the Church. And by implication any previous oaths of fealty owed to the oath-taker's ecclesiastical liege lord, which, in Becket's case, was the Pope in Rome; that was for the oath which he took and the promises which he made when he received the pallium of office as Archbishop of Canterbury. It places God (and the Pope) way above in authority in first place, and the king only comes in a poor second place. In essence, the phrase was utterly distasteful to Henry, and denied him his goal of trying to achieve overall absolute personal power in his kingdom. It cut him down to size. It insulted him, and his station. From Henry's point of view the priests were being downright insolent, dare I use the word, turbulent. When Becket used the term Salvo ordine meo [saving my order] in respect of the Constitution of Clarendon he was literally saying that all should follow them except those belonging to his order, in other words clerics. There was no need for clerics to obey them as they should obey a higher authority.

To Henry it would seem treasonable that there was any higher authority in England above him, after all, was he not the fount of all honour and justice in the land? He was king; no such phrase had been included in his coronation oath.  After all, was he not the leading person in his kingdom? After all, did not the bishops do homage and swear fealty to him for their barony, before they were consecrated? Did he not he himself appoint the bishops, and gave them their lands? And now they were seemingly being ungrateful and ungracious.

The issue over criminous clerks was quite minor. Advowsons, although they might have been important financially, were not that important. These were only excuses. They allowed the king to open up the whole question of temporal versus ecclesiastical power. These were only a means of making the Church in England look small and petty, and unruly before his nobles.  Of overreaching and major importance to Henry was the question of whether he had absolute authority in his kingdom. 

But the fact is that salvo ordine meo was a phrase in very common by clerics when they made their oaths, in many things; for example, when archbishops swore fealty to the Pope in Rome, before they received their pallium, the phrase was defined and specified in the canon law. It was used in the oaths of fealty when as bishop-elects, as barons they received their temporalities from the king, just before they were consecrated and also in oath of fealty made the bishops at the coronation of a new king or prince; in this limited sense it is actually conceded in Clause XII of the Constitutions of Clarendon.

If he could not appoint his own Pope, like the German emperor had done, he could limit the Pope's power in England. Clause X of the Constitutions of Clarendon, the forbidding of appeals to Rome, and Clause IV disallowing the the archbishops, bishops, and priests of England to leave the kingdom without the king's permission, these were the central clauses of the Constitutions: these contained the very essence of the king's intent.

A close examination of the articles of the Constitutions of Clarendon will show that they contain as direct a contradiction to the decretalism of the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church as could be expressed in words. But Becket had already essentially sworn to uphold and defend the pope, the church and its canon law in exchange for the receipt of his pallium and conformation by the pope of his election and consecration as archbishop of Canterbury. The oaths that Bishop make prescribe that they must observe the apostolical commands [the canon law] of the pope with all their power, and they will aid and defend the Roman papacy from allcomers. Could he possibly serve two masters? There were in reality, two incompatible and competing feudal systems: Sacerdotium and Imperium, both of which competed for his homage and fealty. That is the central essence of the Becket Controversy concering the Constitutions of Clarendon.

Becket, however, was absolutely adamant in all his negotiations with the king, and all the way  to the end, that he would only accept and observe the Constitutions of Clarendon as customs of the kingdom salvo ordine suo - saving his order. It was through his stubbornness and determination, and ultimate martyrdom for this cause, that he was made Saint Thomas. He had struck a blow for personal conscience, and for the libertas [freedom from temporal control] of the Church, and was struck down dead for his belief.

It is an almost certainty that further legislation limiting ecclesiastical power in England in favour of royal power would have followed on from the Constitutions, had Becket accepted them without question, without the phrase salvo ordine meo.

It would not be for another 400 years before the king of England achieved full separation of the Church of England from the Pope and Church in Rome, and his appointment as its head in England. It is instructive to note that the phrase salvo ordine meo was also questioned at that time, and dropped from the oaths taken by bishops which they made to the king when taking up their appointments.

The phrases salvo ordine nostro and salvo ordine meo are used in the following letters from Becket to King Henry II.

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). "Letter 74: Becket to King Henry II Desiderio Desideravi. Late May to Early June 1166"The Correspondence of Thomas Becket: Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170. Oxford University Press. pp. 292–. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1.

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). "Letter 186: Becket to King Henry II. Regia potest. After January 1169"The Correspondence of Thomas Becket: Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170. Oxford University Press. pp. 826–. ISBN 978-0-19-820893-8.


AD 1170 Misgivings of the King
Nam sicut nostri majores formulas juris suspectissimas habebant in jure, sic rex semper in verbis archiepiscopi, conscientam habentis purissimam, quasdam clausulas causabatur, scilicet "salvo ordine meo," nunc "salvo honore Dei," nunc "salva fide Dei";
For just as our ancestors had questioned dangerous legal formulas, so, concerning the words used by the archbishop, who had the purest conscience, the king always disputed certain phrases which he used, which were,  salvo ordine meo [with due regard for my order], and also salvo honore Dei  [without prejudice to the honour of God], and salva fide Dei [without prejudice to the faith in God];

Ralph de Diceto

Ralph de Diceto (1965). Radulfi de Diceto decani Lundoniensis opera historica: Ymagines historiarum (cont.) Opuscula. Volume II p. 99. Longman & Company.

Oaths of Fealty taken by the bishops before King Richard I at St. Paul's London
October 8 1191
fidelitatem regis Ricardi juravit. Deinceps archiepiscopi duo, postmodum omnes episcopi : solus episcopus Lundoniensis addidit juramento, "Salvo ordine suo et justitia ecclesiastica."
swore fealty to King Richard. Then the two archbishops stepped forward, then all the bishops: the bishop of London alone added the oath, "Saving his order and the justice of the Church."


"salvo ordine suo" - saving his order
"salvo ordine nostro" - saving our order


Anglo-Norman French 

salf lur ordre

Saving their order
Without prejudice to their order
Except where it conflicts with the aims and priorities [canons, ecclesiastical law etc.] of their positions and roles within the Roman Catholic Church.

Guernes de Pont-Maxence (1838). Immanuel Bekker, ed. La vie St. Thomas le martir. pp. 67–.

Isaac Barrow; William Whewell (1859). The treatise of the pope's supremacy; the discourse on the unity of the church; and appendix. The University Press. pp. 35–.

William Stubbs. The Constitutional History of England, in Its Origin and Development. Cambridge University Press. pp. 577–. ISBN 978-1-108-03630-6.

Zachary N. Brooke; Zachary Nugent Brooke (1989). The English Church and the Papacy: From the Conquest to the Reign of John. Cambridge University Press. pp. 167–. ISBN 978-0-521-36687-8.

Charles Constantine Pise (1829). A History of the Church: From Its Establishment to the Present Century. P. Blenkinsop. pp. 278–.

Sharon Turner (1830). The History of England from the Earliest Period to the Death of Elizabeth: The history of England: middle ages. In five volumes. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green. pp. 244–

Henry Charles Lea (1869). Studies in Church History: The Rise of the Temporal Power - Benefit of Clergy - Excommunnication. Henry C. Lea's son & Company. pp. 140–

Matthew Hale; George Wilson; Thomas Dogherty (1800). The History of the Pleas of the Crown: In Two Volumes. Payne. pp. 71–. 

Eiríkr Magnússon. Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.

Joseph P. Canning; Otto Gerhard Oexle (1998). "In "The oath of fealty and the lawyers" by Magnus Ryan". Political Thought and the Realities of Power in the Middle Ages. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 215–. ISBN 978-3-525-35462-9.
Natalie Fryde; Pierre Monnet; Otto Gerhard Oexle (2002). "The Presence of Feudalism. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-3-525-35391-2.

Jonathan Michael Gray (2012). Oaths and the English Reformation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 217–. ISBN 978-1-107-01802-0.

Popular Law and Common Law in Medieval England
Frank I. Schechter
Columbia Law Review
Vol. 28, No. 3 (Mar., 1928), pp. 269-299
Published by: Columbia Law Review Association, Inc.
DOI: 10.2307/1113386

Karl Leyser (1 July 1994). Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Gregorian Revolution and Beyond. Example from Saxony "salvo ordine suo": A&C Black. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-0-8264-3028-1.

Charles Rembar (21 July 2015). The Law of the Land: The Evolution of Our Legal System. Open Road Media. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-1-5040-1566-0.

Friday, 28 June 2013

The Pallium and its Significance

The Pallium is a circular band made of wool about two inches wide, worn about the neck, breast, and shoulders, and having two weighted pendants, one hanging down in front and one behind. Its ornamentation consists of six small black crosses.

The grant of a Pallium gave the Pope overall control over the appointment of persons to the more important episcopal sees, as the suitability of the appointee was subjected to examination before the Pallium was given. The applicant was required to take a full and regular oath of fidelity to St. Peter, the Roman church, the pope and his sucessors, with only the exception "salvo ordine meo", with no exception being made for any allegiance owed to a king or other temporal authority.  As a privilege the Pallium gave its wearer the right of appeal to the Pope in Rome, over and above any local or provincial synod of bishops, like as if he were a Roman citizen.

Henry Charles Lea (1869). Studies in Church History: The Rise of the Temporal Power - Benefit of Clergy - Excommunnication. Henry C. Lea's son & Company. pp. 134–144.

Steven A. Schoenig (2016). Bonds of Wool: The Pallium and Papal Power in the Middle Ages. CUA Press. ISBN 978-0-8132-2922-5.

Anne J. Duggan (2016). Pope Alexander III (1159–81): The Art of Survival. The Curious Case of  Becket's Pallium: Taylor & Francis. pp. 348–. ISBN 978-1-317-07836-4.

Braun, J. (1911). Pallium. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

A commentary on the new Code of canon Law: The Pallium  p. 292-

Thomas Becket with Pallium

Thursday, 27 June 2013

Sponsa Christi - The Bride of Christ

The formula of the Gregorian [Pope Gregory VII] Reform

Ecclesia [The Church] has female form. It is both Bride [Sponsa] and Mother [Mater]. These were ideas found in the scriptures which had been developed by the Church Fathers, who very much influenced Church philosophy during the 11th and 12th centuries.

The Church is the Bride of Christ [Sponsa Christi]. The Bishop is the bridegroom.

The Church, like brides, should be "catholic, chaste and free". Bishops [and priests] should be celibate, their one true love should be for the Church.

Sponsa means one's betrothed, a bride, one to whom one plight's one troth to, to whom one must remain faithful, one to whom one give one's pledge.

Bishops are married to the Church, for which they receive the symbol of this marriage in the form of a ring [annulus]. Because they are married to the Church priests are expected to be celibate.

Formally prohibiting priests to marry put an end to the possibility of Church positions being selected by and subject to marital alliances, and the possession of property and the hereditary transmission of ecclesiatical benefices which might have followed on from this, which might have created ecclesiastical dynasties combining both temporaal and spiritual powers. In a sense ecclesiastical posts now had to be appointed on spiritual merit, by ecclesiastical election. This was the thinking behind Pope Gregory VII's reform in this matter.


J. Bugge (2012). Virginitas: An Essay in the History of a Medieval Idea. Chapter III - Sponsa Christi: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-94-015-6886-9.

M. Murray (1975). Virginitas: A Phenomenological Introduction. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-90-247-1697-5.

Nicholas Paul; Suzanne Yeager (21 February 2012). Remembering the Crusades: Myth, Image, and Identity. Chapter Seven : The Servile Mother: JHU Press. pp. 174–. ISBN 978-1-4214-0425-7.

Chapter XIV Hildebrand pp. 264-
"The History Of Sacerdotal Celibacy In The Christian Church, Volume 1".  

De anulo et baculo by Rangerius

Rangerius (d. 1112) was bishop of Lucca from c. 1096 until his death. He was a talented literary writer in Latin and a vigorous champion of the Gregorian reform

Rangerius of Lucca, Liber de anulo et baculo 1-14, 859-84; ed. E. Sackur,  pp. 508-511  Hanover, 1892.

Anulus et baculus duo sunt sacra signa, nec ullo
de laici manibus suscipienda modo.
anulus est sponsi, sponsae datur anulus, ut se
noverit unius non alium cupere.
gemma notat sponsam, sponsus signatur ab auro,
haec duo conveniunt, sicut et ilia duo.
atque ideo clamat primi vox ilia parentis
propterea matrem cum patre linquit homo
et sic haerebit uxori, quatenus ultra
non sunt came duo, sed magis una caro.
at baculus prefert signum pastoris opusque,
ut relevet lapsos, cogat et ire pigros.
Christus utrunque sibi nomen tenet officiumque.
Christus habet sponsam, Christus ovile regit.

The ring and the staff are two sacred symbols;  nor in any way.are they to be received from the hands of  the laity..
The ring is given by the bridegroom to the bride, to let her know that no other must desire her.
The gemstone denotes the bride, the bridegroom is signified by gold: and these two fit together, just like these two [the ring and the staff/the bride and groom].
And therefore the voice of the first parent [Adam] proclaims:  for that reason shall a man leave his mother and father, and cleave to his wife, to such an extent that they 
are no longer two bodies, but rather they become of one flesh. [Genesis 2:23-25]
 [Mark 10:7-9 VULGATE]
But the staff is borne in front symbolising the shepherd and his work, in order that he may relieve those who have fallen, and compel those who have become lazy.
Christ has both a name and He himself holds office [as bishop].
Christ has a bride [i.e. the Church], and Christ rules the sheep pen [i.e. the laity].

Liber de anulo et baculo

Monumenta Germaniae Historica
Libelli de Lite
Imperatorum et Pontificum
Saeculis XI. et XII.
Tomus II

Keith Sidwell (1995). Reading Medieval Latin. 7. Rangerius of Lucca: Cambridge University Press. pp. 184–. ISBN 978-1-107-39334-9.

A history of mediaval political theory in the West p.108-

By  Carlyle, R. W. Carlyle, Alexander James, (1903)

Extracts from

Megan McLaughlin (22 April 2010). Sex, Gender, and Episcopal Authority in an Age of Reform, 1000-1122. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87005-4.

The views of Norman Anonymous. He wrote in support of king Henry I of England on the question of the investiture of bishops and abbots.

p. 87

pp. 90-1

These ideas are almost pagan in concept and origin, and, dare I say, similar to Robert Grave's White Godess hypothesis and way of thinking. Well, England/Britain were the remote North-West of Europe, the pagan frontier.

References 2013. The Norman Anonymous - Wikipedia

Wednesday, 26 June 2013

Concordat of London 1107 and Clause 12 of the Constitutions

The Concordat of London on August 1107 was a formal agreement made between Henry I, king of England, and the Church over the right of investitures. Hitherto the Norman kings believed they had absolute right over the appointment and investiture of archbishops, bishops and abbots in England, and hence absolute control over the church in their land. In the crisis preceding the Concordat Henry I was strongly opposed by Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury. The Concordat (equivalent to an international treaty) reached in August 1107 essentially was the following: Henry I gave up the right of investiture of the bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come beforehand before him in person to do homage for their temporalities (the feudal properties or regalia of the episcopacy or abbacy), directly from his hand. During the homage ceremony the candidate bishop or abbot would effectively be made a baron, a tenant-in-chief of the king, and have to do service (provide knights) or pay scutage for their landed properties. After the candidate bishop or abbot had done homage and sworn fealty to the king in the commendation ceremony (saving their order), like any other secular vassal, the Church could then proceed to invest the candidate with their symbols of ecclesiastical office and consecrate them.

Ambiguity remained who selected, or recommended the candidate bishops and abbots in the first place, and whether the required clerical election processes took place before the homage ceremonies or afterwards, just before consecration.  It could be supposed that the previous bishop or abbot, if they were not dead, and had only resigned, had a large say in the nomination of their successor. Technically bishops were to be elected by the canons of the chapter of their cathedrals, and abbots were to be elected by the monks of an abbey.  Symbols of investiture into ecclesiastical office for bishops and abbots were their croziers and rings, and, in the case of an archbishop, the receipt of a pallium from the Pope.

As reported by Eadmer
Eadmer (15 November 2012). Eadmeri historia novorum in Anglia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 186–. ISBN 978-1-108-05222-1.

An. Dom. 1107. Concilium Londoniæ Palatinum de investituris.

Concilium Londini Palatinum. A.D. 1107. (id est, 8. Henr. I.) in Cal. Augusti, Conventus omnium Episcoporum, Abbatum, & Procerum regni, Londoniæ in palatio Regis factus est; & per tres dies (absente Anselmo Archiepiscopo) inter Regem & Episcopos satis actum e Ecclesiarum investituris, quibusdam ad hoc nitentibus, ut Rex eas faceret more Patris & Fratris sui, non juxta præceptum & obedientiam Apostolici. Nam Papa Paschalis in sententia quæ inde promulgata fuerat, firmus stans, concesserat hominia, quæ Papa Urbanus æque ac investituras interdixerat: ac per hoc Regem sibi de investituris consentaneum fecerat. Dehinc, præsente Anselmo, astante multitudine, annuit Rex & statuit, Ut (ab eo tempore in reliquum) nunquam per dationem baculi pastoralis, vel annuli, quisquam de Episcopatu aut Abbatia, per Regem, vel quamlibet laicam manum investiretur in Anglia: Concedente quoque Anselmo, ut nullus in prælationem electus, pro hominio quod Regi faceret, consecratione suscepti honoris privaretur.

Quibus ita dispositis, pene omnibus Ecclesiis Angliæ, quæ suis erant pastoribus diu viduatæ, per consilium Anselmi, & Procerum regni, sine omni virgæ pastoralis, aut annuli investitura, patres a Rege sunt instituti. Instituti quoque sunt ibidem & eodem tempore, ab ipso Rege, quidam ad regimen quarundam Ecclesiarum Normanniæ, quæ similiter erant suis patribus destitutæ.

Clause 12 of the Constitutions of Clarendon reflects the Concordat reached. It also suggests that the election of the abbot or bishop should take place before all the more important clerics and prelates of the kingdom in the king's own chapel with his consent beforehand.

Cap. xii. Cum vacaverit archiepiscopatus, vel episcopatus,
vel abbatia, vel prioratus de dominio regis, debet esse in manu
ipsius, et inde percipiet omnes redditus et exitus sicut domin-
icos. Et cum ventum fuerit ad consulendum ecclesiae, debet
dominus rex mandare potiores personas ecclesiae, et in capella
ipsius domini regis debet fieri electio assensu domini regis et
consilio personarum regni, quas ad hoc faciendum vocaverit.
Et ibidem faciet electus homagium et fidelitatem domino regi
sicut ligio domino, de vita sua et de membris et de honore suo
terreno, salvo ordine suo, priusquam sit consecratus.


12. When an archbishopric or bishopric, or an abbey
or priory of the king's demesne shall be vacant, it ought
to be in his [the king's] hands, and he shall assume its revenues and
expenses as pertaining to his demesne. And when the
time comes to provide for the church, the lord king should
notify the more important clergy of the church, and the
election should be held in the lord king's own chapel
with the assent of the lord king and on the advice of the
clergy of the realm whom he has summoned for the purpose.
And there, before he be consecrated, let the elect
perform homage and fealty to the lord king as his liege
lord for life, limbs, and earthly honor, saving his order.

Clause 12 of the Constitutions was subsequently condemned by Pope Alexander III (Hoc damnavit).

The Catholic Encyclopaedia suggests
"In the same year, however, an agreement was arrived at, and was ratified by the pope in 1106, and by the Parliament in London in 1107. According to this concordat the king renounced his claims to investiture, but the oath of fealty was still exacted. In the appointment of the higher dignitaries of the Church, however, the king still retained the greatest influence. The election took place in the royal palace, and, whenever a candidate obnoxious to the king was proposed, he simply proposed another, who was then always elected. The chosen candidate thereupon swore the oath of fealty, which always preceded the consecration. The separation of the ecclesiastical office from the bestowal of the temporalities was the sole object attained, an achievement of no very great importance."


Uta-Renate Blumenthal (2010). The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century. University of Pennsylvania Press. . ISBN 0-8122-0016-0.
David Wilkins (1737). Concilia Magnae Britanniae Et Hiberniae: A Synodo Verolamiensi A.D. CCCCXLVI. Ad Londinensem A.D. MDCCXVII. Accedunt Constitutiones Et Alia Ad Historiam Ecclesiae Anglicanae Spectantia. [Quatuor Voluminibus Comprehensa]. Ab Anno CCCCXLVI. ad Annum MCCLXV.. Gosling, Gyles, Woodward, Davis. pp. 386–.

Sir Thomas Littleton; David Hoüard; France (1766). Anciennes loix des françois,: conservées dans les coutumes angloises, recueillies par Littleton; avec des observations historiques & critiques, où l'on fait voir que les coutumes & usages suivis anciennement en Normandie, sont les mêmes que ceux qui étoient en vigueur dans toute la France sous les deux premieres races de nos rois. Ouvrage également utile pour l'étude de notre ancienne histoire & pour l'intelligence du droit coutumier de chaque province. Imprimerie de Richard Lallement. pp. 226–.

Project Gutenberg.Anciennes loix des françois conservées dans les coutumes engloises recueillies

Rogerus (de Hoveden) (1868). Chronica. Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. pp. 164.

William Stubbs (15 November 2012). The Historical Collections of Walter of Coventry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-1-108-05112-5. 

Norman Frank Cantor (8 December 2015). Church, Kingship, and Lay Investiture in England, 1089-1135. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-7699-0.

The lives of the popes. Paschal I. Taylor & Francis. pp. 88–.

John Allen Giles; Johannes de Caleto; John Deeping; Robert of Boston, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1845). Chronicon Angliae Petriburgense. D. Nutt. pp. 74–

Willelmi Malmesbiriensis monachi Gesta regum Anglorum, atque Historia novella (1840) Sumptibus Societatis London.

Löffler, K. (1910). Conflict of Investitures. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

 "Investiture Controversy", from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.


Concordat Watch - Britain 
How the world's first concordat came about (documents and commentary) Here
Concordat agenda, 1075: the “Papal dictation” Here

Monday, 24 June 2013

Hierarchy and Related Matters within Roman Catholic Church


Van Hove, A. (1910). Hierarchy. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Joyce, G. (1911). The Pope. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Sägmüller, J.B. (1908). Cardinal. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Cerretti, B. (1910). Legate. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Kriston R. Rennie (2013). The Foundations of Medieval Papal Legation. Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978-1-137-26495-4. 

I. S. Robinson (1990). The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation. Chapter 4: Papal Legates: Cambridge University Press. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-0-521-31922-5.

Boudinhon, A. (1911). Metropolitan. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Messmer, S. (1907). Archbishop. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Boudinhon, A. (1911). Primate. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Van Hove, A. (1907). Bishop. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Oestereich, T. (1907). Abbot. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Kirsch, J.P. (1907). Archdeacon. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Arthur Martineau (1853). Church History in England, from the earliest times to the period of the reformation. Rural Deans and Archdeacons: Longman. pp. 426–.

Following the Conquest [1066] dioceses in England were divided into archdeaconries which were further subdivided deaneries which were similar in size and function to the Anglo-Saxon minsters. Archdeacons were the eyes and ears of their bishop [or archbishop]. They could now better scritinises the characters and morality of the local clerics, and their competence as priests: the parish priests were the lowest in the rung.

Dorothy Mary Owen; Michael J. Franklin; Christopher Harper-Bill (1995). Medieval Ecclesiastical Studies: In Honour of Dorothy M. Owen. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-0-85115-384-1.

Dunford, D. (1908). Dean. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Thurston, H. (1908). Deacons. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Dunford, D. (1908). Canon. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Boudinhon, A. (1911). Priest. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Fanning, W. (1908). Cleric. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Gildas, M. (1908). Cistercians. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Moeller, C. (1912). The Knights Templars. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Antipope. (1907). In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Kelly, L., & Ojetti, B. (1908). Concordat. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.


Back StoleRing, and Crosier (orarium, anulum et baculum) and Pallium 

Thurston, H. (1911). Pontificalia. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Thurston, H. (1908). Chasuble. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Braun, J. (1911). Mitre. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Braun, J. (1912). Stole. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Morrisroe, P. (1908). Crosier. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Thurston, H. (1912). Rings. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Braun, J. (1911). Pallium. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 


Kirsch, J.P. (1911). Ecclesiastical Province. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Baumgarten, P.M. (1910). Holy See. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wilhelm, J. (1907). The Apostolic See. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Van Hove, A. (1909). Diocese. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Boudinhon, A., & Fanning, W. (1911). Parish. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Boudinhon, A. (1908). Cathedral. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  

Birt, H. (1907). Abbey. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Fanning, W. (1911). Canonical Erection of a Monastery. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
Burton, E. (1908). Canterbury. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Burton, E. (1912). Ancient See of York. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

I. S. Robinson (19 July 1990). The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation. Papal Legates: Cambridge University Press. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-0-521-31922-5.


Investiture Controversy


Concordat of Worms

Bishop (Catholicism)



Primacy of Canterbury

Pontifical vestments




Chasuble of St. Thomas Becket

Cathedral of Tournai Belgium

Nicholas J. Santoro (2011). Mary In Our Life Notre Dame de Tournai - Red Vestments of St. Thomas: iUniverse. p. 250. ISBN 978-1-4620-4022-3.

Clothing worn by Thomas Becket, perfectly preserved, and displayed in a collection of ancient church vestments. Becket stayed in Tournai on his return from France to England in 1870. His manteau, strangely embroidered with Indian-style swastikas of peace, is exquisite.

Stephen Batchelor (30 April 2010). Medieval History For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 184–. ISBN 978-0-470-66460-5.

By Wikipedians. Christianity: A History. PediaPress. pp. 157–.

Mary Stroll (2004). Calixtus the Second, 1119-1124. BRILL. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-90-04-13987-9.