Friday, 30 November 2012

Alan of Tewkesbury

Alan, Abbot of Tewkesbury became a monk at Canterbury, rising to prior in 1179. In the struggle between Thomas of Canterbury and Henry II, he was a strong supporter of Thomas. As a result, he went to Tewkesbury as abbot where he was out of Henry's way.

His "Life of Becket" is to be found in the second volume of Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, edited by the Rev. J. C. Robertson (Rolls Series, London,; 1875–85; Part I, CXC, 1475–88). He also collected and arranged a number of Thomas' letters.

His Life of Becket was primarily intended by him as a introduction to the collection of the Becket letters which he assembledand edited.  Alan of Tewkesbury's collection of the Becket correspondence an enlargement upon John of Salisbury's collection was originally designed to be prefaced by the following works: Alan's prologue, followed by John of Salisbury's Life of Becket, followed by Alan's more explanatory Life of Becket. It was also used in the Quadrilogus versions II and I.

In 1179 Alan became prior of Christ Church Canterbury, and in 1186, after a dispute with Archbishop Baldwin, he became abbot of St Mary's, Tewkesbury.

There is a theory that Alan of Tewkesbury and the scholastic philosopher Alan of Lille are one and the same person.




References


"Alan of Tewkesbury". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

DNB Reference

Michael Staunton (2006). Thomas Becket and His Biographers. Chapter 4: Criticism and vindication: Anonymous II and Alan of Tewkesbury: Boydell. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-84383-271-3.

Anne Duggan (1980). Thomas Becket: A Textual History of His Letters. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822486-0.

Anne Duggan (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 1-175. Volume 1. Alan of Tewkesbury's Collection: Clarendon Press. pp. lxxx–. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1.


Interpretations of the Rebuilding of Canterbury Cathedral, 1174-1186: Archaeological and Historical Evidence
Peter Draper
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians
Vol. 56, No. 2 (Jun., 1997), pp. 184-203
Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Society of Architectural Historians
DOI: 10.2307/991283
 

Works

Alanus Cantuariensis; John Allen Giles (1846). Alani prioris Cantuariensis postea abbatis Tewkesberiensis scripta quae extant. Parker.

Mary De Chantal Biala (1945). Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury by John of Salisbury and Alan of Tewkesbury. Loyola University of Chicago
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1050&context=luc_theses

Manuscripts

British Library Cotton MS Claudius B II
Alan of Tewkesbury,
Collectio epistolarum sancti Thome Cantuariensis


Thursday, 29 November 2012

Libertas Ecclesiae

Pope Gregory VII's concept of the Freedom of the Church [Libertas ecclesiae]

Papal Bull Document Title:Libertas Ecclesiae
Author: Pope Gregory VII
Date: 1079
Source: Ephraim Emerton, trans., The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII
(NewYork: Columbia University Press, 1932).
 
We hold it to be far nobler to fight for a long time for freedom of the Holy Church
than to sink into a miserable and devilish servitude. For the wretched fight as limbs of
the devil, and are crushed down into miserable slavery to him. The members of Christ,
on the other hand, fight to bring back those same wretches into Christian freedom.

Church Liberty was the central slogan of the reform of Pope Gregory VII, and a "key concept" of the Investiture Controversy. Liberty of the Church meant freedom of the Church from oppression by temporal authority and meant especially for Gregory VII:
  • that the Church was free from interference by lay people to elect [invest] their bishops;
  • that the whole Church was de facto and also where necessary under the direct leadership of the Pope;
  • and that the Pope in the whole Christendom ("christianitas") had the highest power.
If Becket fought for anything in particular, he fought for Libertas Ecclesiae --Freedom of the Church from state interference or intervention, church immunity from secular control and jurisdiction, emancipation of the Church from secular authority. John of Salisbury was also a champion for the Freedom of the Church.


Zachary N. Brooke. The English Church and the Papacy: From the Conquest to the Reign of John. Cambridge University Press.  p. 10. ISBN 978-0-521-36687-8.
said
...
Further what I suggested to be the meaning of ecclesia Anglicana as used by Becket. Becket insists that the liberty of the ecclesia Anglicana is at stake, and by liberty he makes it clear that he means freedom from royal control, and at the same time freedom to obey the pope, to be governed by papal authority as was the rest of the Church. He is evidently asserting the right of the Church in England to be treated in the same way that the Church is elsewhere.
...

Canonical authority for Libertas Ecclesiae
Luke 20:25 (King James Version (KJV)
And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.

In more practical terms the liberty of the church meant, that is included, liberty to proceed to give elections of bishops when their sees fell vacant, so as to put an end to the exploitation of the Church's wealth by the kings.

References


Encyclopaedia Britannica links

R. H. Helmholz (2010). The Spirit of Classical Canon Law. University of Georgia Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-0-8203-3463-9.

Gerd TellenbachLibertas: Kirche und Weltordnung im Zeitalter des Investiturstreites. Stuttgart 1936

Klaus Schatz (1996). Papal Primacy: From Its Origins to the Present. Liturgical Press. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-0-8146-5522-1.

Noel B. Reynolds; W. Cole Durham, Jr. (1 June 1996). Religious Liberty in Western Thought. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-0-8028-4853-6.

Oestereich, Thomas. "Pope St. Gregory VII." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 29 Nov. 2012 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06791c.htm>.


Bryan P. Stone (30 August 2012). A Reader in Ecclesiology. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-1-4094-2855-8.

Select historical documents of the Middle Ages (1903)
Translated and edited by Ernest F. Henderson

Wednesday, 28 November 2012

Edward Grim

Edward Grim

Eye witness to the murder of Becket in Canterbury Cathedral


References

Edward Grim - Wikipedia

James Craigie Robertson; Joseph Brigstocke Sheppard (1876). Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (canonized by Pope Alexander III, A.D. 1173). Volume II. Vita Sancti Thomae - Auctore Edwardo Grim: Longman & Company. pp. 353–.

Edward Grim's account of the Murder of Thomas Becket

Patrologia Latina Tomus 190
Edwardus Grim ()
Vita I S. Thomae Cantuariensis
Parisiis
J. P. Migne
1854
http://www.mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/xanfang.php?tabelle=Edwardus_Grim_cps2&corpus=2&lang=0&allow_download=

Benedict of Peterborough

As a chronicler not really to be trusted. He was clearly nothing much more than a  martyrologist, largely interested in only recording the miracles arising from Becket's murder. Indeed he was given the job of recording the miracles as reported by pilgrims to Canterbury. Subsequently he becomes the first guardian of Becket's Shrine at Canterbury, clearly a nice sinecure.

Benedict of Peterborough

Abbot of Peterborough. Wrote a history of Becket's "Passion", preserved in part in the work on Becket known as "Quadrilogus", and also, a first-hand account of Becket's "Miracles" (Robertson, "Materials for the History of Thomas Becket", Rolls Series, 1876). Formerly regarded as the author of "Gesta Henrici II", now ascribed to Roger of Hoveden.
References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbas_Benedictus

Benedict (d.1193) (DNB00) - Wikisource 

Crowne, J. Vincent. "Benedict of Peterborough." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907.


The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume I. From the Beginnings to the Cycles of Romance.
§11. Benedict of Peterborough. IX. Latin Chroniclers from the Eleventh to the Thirteenth Centuries. 

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Edmund King, ‘Benedict (c.1135–1193)’, first published 2004,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/2081


http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1170benedict-becket.asp

Medieval Sourcebook:
The Chronicle of "Benedict of Peterborough":
The Murder of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 29 December 1170


Benedict (Abbot of Peterborough) (1850). Benedicti Abbatis Petriburgensis de vita et miraculis S. Thomae Cantuar: The life and miracles of Saint Thomas of Canterbury. Printed and published for the Caxton Society, by A. Black.

Benedict (Abbot of Peterborough) (1850). Benedicti Abbatis Petriburgensis de vita et miraculis S. Thomae Cantuar: The life and miracles of Saint Thomas of Canterbury. Printed and published for the Caxton Society, by A. Black. pp. 15–.

St. Thomas of Canterbury, his death and miracles Volume 1


Sale of Mss at Christie's 20 Nov 2013, London
BENEDICT OF PETERBOROUGH (d.1193), Miracula Sancti Thomae Cantuariensis, in Latin

Michael Staunton (2006). Thomas Becket and His Biographers. Chapter V: The view from Canterbury: Benedict of Peterborough and William of Canterbury: Boydell. pp. 49–. ISBN 978-1-84383-271-3.

Anne Duggan (2007). Thomas Becket: Friends, Networks, Texts and Cult. Ashgate/Variorum. ISBN 978-0-7546-5922-8.

Chapter XII - The Lorvão transcription of Benedict of Peterborough's Liber miraculorum beati Thome: Lisbon, cod. Alcobaça ccxc/143
Chapter XIII -The Santa Cruz transcription of Benedict of Peterborough's Liber miraculorum beat Thome: Porto, BPM, cod. Santa Cruz 60

Edmund King (1973). Peterborough Abbey 1086-1310. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20133-9.




John of Salisbury

Author of  the Life of StThomas of Canterbury. Bishop of Chartres. Author of the  Policraticus and Metalogicon.

His extant works, with the exception of the Historia Pontificalis and also of the Life of St. Thomas of Canterbury, are printed in the 199th volume of Migne's Patrologia Latina.

The central question of relevance to this blog is, was John of Salisbury the mastermind behind Becket's resistance to Henry II? Becket never sent any letters to the important personages of the times without consulting his friend, John of Salisbury, first. 

References

John of Salisbury - Wikipedia

Jean de Salisbury - Wikipédia

John Sellars (2016). The Routledge Handbook of the Stoic Tradition. Chapter 6: Stoic Themes in Peter Abelard and John of Salisbury: Routledge. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-1-317-67583-9

Policraticus - Wikipedia

John of Salisbury's The Policraticus, 1159

John of Salisbury's Troubles Leading To His Exile

Maurice Demimuid (1873). Jean de Salisbury. E. Thorin

Dr Paul Dalton; Professor David Luscombe (28 June 2015). Rulership and Rebellion in the Anglo-Norman World, c.1066–c.1216: Essays in Honour of Professor Edmund King. Chapter 9: David Luscombe - John of Salisbury and Courtiers' Trifles: Ashgate Publishing Limited. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-1-4724-1375-8.

John Guy (5 April 2012). Thomas Becket: Warrior, Priest, Rebel, Victim: A 900-Year-Old Story Retold. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 178–. ISBN 978-0-14-193328-3.

J. H. Burns; James Henderson Burns (1988). The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought C.350-c.1450. Cambridge University Press. pp. 327–. ISBN 978-0-521-42388-5.


William Cave (1745). Scriptorum ecclesiasticorum historia literaria Volumen II apud J. Rudolph. Im-Hoff. pp. 243–.

Louis Ellies Du Pin; William Wotton (1698). A new history of ecclesiastical writers  John of Salisbury: Printed for Abel Swalle and Tim. Childe.

University Magazine: A Literary and Philosophic Review. Pre-historic Oxford - Vacarius and John of Salisbury: Curry. 1867. pp. 611–.

A Companion to John of Salisbury. BRILL. 28 November 2014. pp. 5–. Contents ISBN 978-90-04-28294-0.

A Companion to John of Salisbury. Chapter 2: John of Salisbury and Thomas Becket: BRILL. 2014. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-90-04-28294-0.

John Hosler (2013). John of Salisbury: Military Authority of the Twelfth-Century Renaissance. BRILL. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-90-04-25147-2.

C. N. L. Brooke (1999). Churches and Churchmen in Medieval Europe. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-85285-183-5.

Francis Courtney (1954). Cardinal Robert Pullen. An english theologian of the 12th century. Gregorian Biblical BookShop.  ISBN 978-88-7652-042-6.
[Pullen was JoS and Gilbert Foliot's tutor in Paris] 


Bollermann, K., & Nederman, C. J. (2014). John of Salisbury and Thomas Becket. In A Companion to John of Salisbury (pp. 63-104). Brill.

Bollermann, K., & Nederman, C. J. (2014). The “Sunset Years”: John of Salisbury as Bishop of Chartres and the Emergent Cult of St. Thomas Becket in France. Viator45(2), 55-76.

Bollermann, K., & Nederman, C. J. (2014). A Special Collection: John of Salisbury's Relics of Saint Thomas Becket and Other Holy Martyrs.Mediaevistik26(1), 163-181.
 

Les Archives de littérature du Moyen Âge (ARLIMA)
John of Salisbury
http://www.arlima.net/no/1528

JOHN OF SALISBURY
Sister M. Anthony Brown
Franciscan Studies
Vol. 19, No. 3/4 (SEPTEMBER-DECEMBER 1959), pp. 241-297
Article Stable URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/41974691

Maurice Demimuid (1873). Jean de Salisbury. E. Thorin.
Jean de Salisbury - Maurice Demimuid

Michael Staunton (1 January 2006). Thomas Becket and His Biographers. Boydell. ISBN 978-1-84383-271-3.
Pages: 19-27 The forerunner: John of Salisbury

Barrau Julie. La conversio de Jean de Salisbury : la Bible au service de Thomas Becket ?. 
In: Cahiers de civilisation médiévale. 50e année (n°199), Juillet-septembre 2007. pp. 229-244.
doi : 10.3406/ccmed.2007.2966
url : /web/revues/home/prescript/article/ccmed_0007-9731_2007_num_50_199_2966

Hans Liebeschütz (1968). Mediaeval humanism in the life and writings of John of Salisbury. Kraus Reprint.


Beryl Smalley (1973). The Becket conflict and the schools: a study of intellectuals in politics. Chapter IV John of Salisbury pp 87-108 Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-87471-172-1.

Magister Vacarius
F. Liebermann
The English Historical Review
Vol. 11, No. 42 (Apr., 1896), pp. 305-314
Published by: Oxford University Press
 
Barrau Julie. La conversio de Jean de Salisbury : la Bible au service de Thomas Becket ?. In: Cahiers de civilisation médiévale. 50e année (n°199), Juillet-septembre 2007. pp. 229-244.
doi : 10.3406/ccmed.2007.2966
url : /web/revues/home/prescript/article/ccmed_0007-9731_2007_num_50_199_2966

DIPLOMATIC MISSION John of Salisbury and the crisis in the Church of England (1162-1170 AD).

The article is dedicated to the diplomatic activity of a prominent medieval thinker and writer, John of Salisbury (1115/1120–1180), during the conflict between Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Henry II Plantagenet. It is shown that John of Salisbury was a key figure in solving the confrontation between the church and the king.
ДИПЛОМАТИЧЕСКИЕ МИССИИ ИОАННА СОЛСБЕРИЙСКОГО И КРИЗИС В АНГЛИЙСКОЙ ЦЕРКВИ (1162–1170 ГГ.) - тема научной статьи по истории и историческим наукам, читайте бесплатно текст научно-исследовательской работы в электронной библиотеке КиберЛенинка


Works

Giovanni di Salisbury (1990). Inos Biffi, ed. Anselmo e Becket. Editoriale Jaca Book. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-88-16-40263-8.

John of Salisbury; tr. Ronald E. Pepin (2009). Anselm & Becket: two Canterbury saints' lives. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 978-0-88844-298-7.

John (of Salisbury.) (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis ... opera omnia, collegit et cum codicibus MSS. contulit J.A. Giles. pp. 359–.
Vita Sancti Thomae Cantuar Auctore Joanne Saresberiensi Carnotensi Episcopo 
Another Link
John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres); John Allen Giles (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis opera omnia. Nunc primum in unum collegit et cum codicibus manuscriptis: Opuscula et poemata. J. H. Parker. pp. 359–

John (of Salisbury.) (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis ... opera omnia, collegit et cum codicibus MSS. contulit J.A. Giles. Opera Omnia

Mary De Chantal Biala (1945). Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury by John of Salisbury and Alan of Tewkesbury. Loyola University of Chicago
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1050&context=luc_theses

John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres); Ronald E. Pepin (2009). Anselm & Becket: two Canterbury saints' lives. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 978-0-88844-298-7.

Chretien Lupus; Alejandro III (Papa); Luis VII (Rey de Francia.); Enrique II (Rey de Inglaterra.), Tommaso Antonio Filippini (1728). Epistolae et vita D. Thomae martyris et Archi-episcopi Cantuariensis: nec non epistolae Alexandri III Pontificis, Galliae regis Ludovici Septimi, Angliae regis Henrici II ... : in lucem productae ex manuscripto Vaticano. prostant apud Jo. Baptistam Albritium q. Hieron. et Sebastianum Coleti. pp. 2–.

Patrologiae cursus completus : Series latina (1800) Volume: 199
[Tomus CXCIX]
Editor: Migne, J.-P. (Jacques-Paul)

Marguerin de La Bigne (1618). Margarini de la Bigne Magna Bibliotheca veterum Patrum. Volume 12.

Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury
Volume 2. pp 299-
https://archive.org/stream/materialsforhist02robe#page/299/mode/1up

John of Salisbury (26 October 1990). John of Salisbury: Policraticus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36701-1.
Edited and Translated by Cary J. Nederman
Book IV Chapter 3:That the Prince is a minister of priests and their inferior; and what it is for rulers to perform their ministry faithfully.

John of Salisbury (bp. of Chartres.) (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis Postea Episcopi Carnotensis Opera Omnia .... Apud J. H. Parker. 

John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres); John Allen Giles (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis opera omnia. Nunc primum in unum collegit et cum codicibus manuscriptis: Epistolae. J. H. Parker.

John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres) (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis opera omnia. Nunc primum in unum collegit et cum codicibus manuscriptis: Epistolae. Volume II. J. H. Parker. pp. 117–.

Jean de Salisbury (1639). Joannis Saresberiensis Policraticus, sive de nugis curialium et vestigiis philosophorum libri octo. Accedit huic editioni ejusdem Metalogicus...Liber IV. Cap. III. p. 212

John of Salisbury's Historia Pontificalis 
Supplementa tomorum I, V, VI, XII.: Chronica aevi Suevici. Historia Pontificalis: Bibliopolii aulicii Hahniani. 1868.515-

Michael Wilks (1994). The World of John of Salisbury. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-631-19409-5.


John of Salisbury Life of St. Thomas of Canterbury [Latin]
From the University of Zurich Corpus Corporum
Patrologia Latina Vol 190 

Ioannes_Saresberiensis_Alanus_Tewkesburiensi_cps2, Vita IV et V S. Thomae Cantuariensis, 2

Biala, Mary De Chantal, "Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury By John of Salisbury and Alan
of Tewkesbury" (1945). Master's Theses. Paper 51.

http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_theses/51

The life or the ecclesiasticall historie of S. Thomas Archbishope of Canterbury
Baronio, Cesare, 1538-1607., A. B., fl. 1639.
Colloniæ [i.e. Paris: Printed by the widow of J. Blageart], M.DC.XXXIX. [1639]
(Contains in part a translation of John of Salisbury's hagiography of the Life of St. Thomas Becket)


The life or the ecclesiasticall historie of s. Thomas, archbishope of Canterbury [tr. from the Annales ecclesiastici of C. Baronius by A.B.]. 1639.


John of Salisbury (1987). Entheticus Maior and Minor. BRILL. pp. 6–. ISBN 90-04-07811-8.

Clement Charles Julian Webb (1971). John of Salisbury. Russell & Russell.

Beryl Smalley (1973). The Becket Conflict and the Schools  Basil Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-14400-7.
Chapter 5: John of Salisbury

The Medieval Latin Vocabulary of the Letters of John of Salisbury
By Casimir F. Kuszynski
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=luc_diss


monumenta.ch  Ioannes Saresberiensis

The “Sunset Years”: John of Salisbury as Bishop of Chartres and the Emergent Cult of St. Thomas Becket in France
Author: Karen Bollermann, Cary J. Nederman
Pages: pp. 55-76
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1484/J.VIATOR.1.103912



Correspondence

John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres); W. J. Millor; Harold Edgeworth Butler; Christopher Nugent Lawrence Brooke (1986). The Letters of John of Salisbury: The early letters (1153-1161). Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822239-2.

John (of Salisbury, évêque de Chartres.) (1979). The Letters of John of Salisbury: The later letters (1163-1180). Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822240-8.

 


Translations of letters 

Translations of Letters One to Sixty of John of Salisbury
By Mary Frances Patricia Shea
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1353&context=luc_theses

An Annotated Translation of the Letters of John of Salisbury: Letters 107-135
By Clare Rooney
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1343&context=luc_theses

Translations of Letters Sixty-One to One-Hundred Six of John of Salisbury
By Mary Patricius Cullinane
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1477&context=luc_theses

An Annotated Translation of the Correspondence of John of Salisbury: Letters 136-175
By Daniel V. Harkin
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1201&context=luc_theses

Translations of Letters One-Hundred Seventy-Six to Two-Hundred Six of John of Salisbury
By Casimir F. Kuszynski
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1641&context=luc_theses

Historical Background and Translation of Letters 245-291 of John of Salisbury
By Sister Mary Josephine Peters
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1343&context=luc_theses

An Annotated Translation of the Letters of John of Salisbury
Letters 292-335
By John Francis O'Connor
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1671&context=luc_theses




Saturday, 24 November 2012

The Two Swords


Quotes from
A history of mediæval political theory in the West, R. W. Carlyle and A. J. Carlyle
(1903, Blackwood, Edinburgh and London)
Volume 4, Chapter IV, pp. 40-
The Relative Dignity of the Temporal and Spiritual Powers


...




Enough has been said to make it elear that, while probably every one in the tenth and eleventh centuries would have recognised certain general principles as determining the relative position of the two great authorities, the actual demarcation of the exact sphere of each authority was some- what uncertain and fluctuating. The secular authority had its ecclesiastical responsibilities, and the ecclesiastical its political, while in the direction and control of many ecclesi- astical matters the Christian people, the laity, had an un- determined but real place.



...




We can find phrases which assert very emphatically the superior dignity of the Spiritual as compared with the Temporal power.
...
[in the tenth century] Ratherius of Verona, in his writings we find the confident expression of his conviction of the superiority of his office [as Bishop of Verona] and position to that of the king.
...
in a treatise ascribed to Pope Silvester II. (Gerbert), he urges bishops to remember that no dignity can be compared with theirs, that the crowns of kings are in comparison with the mitres of bishops as lead compared to gold, and that kings and princes bow their necks to the priest and reverence his decrees.
...
when attending the court of the Emperor Henry III., he asked that he should be provided with a seat, for it was not seemly that one who had been anointed with the holy chrism should not receive due respect. The Emperor said that he also had received his authority with the anointing of the holy oil, but Wazo replied that this unction which he had received was very different from that of the priest, and greatly inferior, for it was the sign of the power of death, while that of the priest was the sign of the power of life.
...
When, however, we have recognised how emphatic, even in those times, was the claim that the Spiritual power was superior in dignity to the Temporal, we must be careful to observe that this did not at all mean that the ecclesiastical person was not subject to the secular in secular matters. The greater clergy, that is the bishops and abbots of the greater monasteries, were by the end of the tenth century, in almost all cases, the vassals of the emperor or king, or of some great lord, and as such they owed them loyalty and were subject, with respect to their feudal tenure, to the jurisdiction of the feudal courts.
...
In his letter [Peter Damian] to the people of Faenza he com- mends their determination not to proceed to the election of their bishop till the King (Henry III.) should arrive. While warning the secular princes against the error of thinking that they have arbitrary rights of appointment, he seems clearly to recognise their rights. Even with respect to appointments to the Papal See, he seems clearly to interpret the decree of Pope Nicholas II. as implying that the election was not to be reckoned as complete until it had been submitted to the royal authority. And in his references to Henry III. he recog- nises, as we have seen, in the most unqualified terms the service which he had rendered to the Church in purging it from simony, and compares him to King Josiah, who, when he had found the Book of the Law, overthrew the altars and the abominable idols and superstitions of former kings, and says that it was because he refused to follow the corrupt example of his predecessors that, by the divine dispensation, it had come about that the Roman Church was now ordered accord- ing to his will, and that no one should be elected to the Roman See without his authority.
...
If, however, from such passages as these we may justly infer that Peter Damian admitted the propriety of the in- tervention of the Temporal power in ecclesiastical affairs, we can also find in his writings phrases which express a very high sense of the superiority of the Spiritual power over the Temporal. In one place he describes the Pope as the King of Kings and Prince of Emperors, who excels all men in honour and dignity.
...
He speaks of Christ as having committed to St Peter " beato vitte seternse clavigero, terreni simul et Coelestis imperii iura " ; and, in another place, as having committed to St Peter the laws of heaven and earth.
...
...
Peter Damian speaks of the close union which ought to exist between the royal and the priestly power, for each has need of the other. The priesthood is protected by the kingdom, and the kingdom by the sanctity of the priestly office. The king is girded with the sword to resist the enemies of the Church, while the priest gives himself to prayer that he may propitiate God to the king and people.
Temporal and Spiritual powers is practically based upon what we have called the Gelasian tradition — that is, the conception set out in the fifth century by Pope Gelasius I., of the autonomy of each of the great powers within its own sphere.



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the function of the priest is to abound
in compassion, and to cherish the children with motherly
love ; the function of the judge is to punish the wicked, to
deliver the innocent from their hands






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The tribunal of the judge is clearly differ- ent from the seat of the priest. The judge bears the sword that he may punish those who live unrighteously; the priest is content with the staff of innocence that he may maintain a quiet and peaceable discipline.

The two swords
and he describes the felicity of that condition of things when the sword of the kingdom is joined to the sword of the priest, when the sword of the priest tempers that of the king, and the sword of the king sharpens that of the priest ; for these are the two swords spoken of at the time of the Lord's Passion. Then, indeed, will the Kingdom and the priesthood be set forward and honoured, when they are joined in this happy union.
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The two swords are both from God: both represent the divine authority, and they ought to be in the closest alliance with each other;
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Peter Damian talks of them as quite distinct and independent, and that he in no way suggests that conception, which appeared later, that both swords belonged to the Spiritual power.


Further Reference

J. H. Burns (17 October 1991). The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought C.350-c.1450. Cambridge University Press. pp. 319–. ISBN 978-0-521-42388-5.

Lacey Baldwin Smith (1999). Fools, Martyrs, Traitors: The Story of Martyrdom in the Western World. Northwestern University Press. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-0-8101-1724-2.