Sunday, 22 May 2016

Garnier - Fetching Becket's Pallium from the Pope, July 1162


120 The abbot of Evesham was then summoned [by Becket], Father Adam de Saint Luz [Senlis], shrewd and well-known. [Thomas] commanded him to go fetch his pallium. Two good clerics and a monk went with him [the abbot]. And they found Pope Alexander at Montpellier.

121 The clerics were well-versed in the arts, the decretals [of the canon law], and the [civil] law. Each of the three gave his petition by himself. And they spoke very well and learnedly all three. And Pope Alexander listened to them well, this I believe, but he did not grant permission for the pallium [to be given] to them. 605

122 They went many times to the cardinals. The cardinals demanded to know from them a great number of times what they had brought with them for the Pope and whoever else [them] , [saying] that they had been chased out of Rome and had run away from it without any of their incomes, penniless. 610

123 The messengers always replied to their demands that they had come from a distant country; that whatever they had brought they had already spent. The pallium which they sought holily and without conditions, never would they handle it simoniacally.

124 Never could they anymore take demands for all their but how the abbot saw a place to speak, and [that after he] saw that the cardinals completely surrounded the Pope, that his request much well began to be able to be presented, but not  a word of the decretal would he mention.

125 "My Lord," he said "this is what God who is Truth says, (which you must observe, as it is in God's place which you sit.):
'Ask justly', says God, 'and you will receive it; seek piously and you will find it; the door will be opened for you, if you knock on the true door.' 625

[Note: Luke 11:9-10  ' And I say to you, Ask, and it shall be given you: seek, and you shall find: knock, and it shall be opened to you. 10 For every one that asketh, receiveth; and he that seeketh, findeth; and to him that knocketh, it shall be opened. ']  
126 "We are very fatigued and have come from far away. That which we wish to have we ask for piously; here we must seek for that which we require. You will open the door for it; we have knocked with dignity. You occupy the place of God; we shall find God in you."

127 Then the Pope said to him, when he had completely finished, "Frater [Brother] thou wilt take from here that which thou hast asked for

Thou has sought for it justly, and thou wilt find it; We will open my [our] door to thee, because thou hast knocked on it." He then had the pallium brought before him. 635

128 They were given charge of the pallium by the Pope, and they were all to return home with it.  Thus it came to Thomas without gift and without sin;  neither had he for this handed over either money, or gold, or silver.An example that his successors to the see [of Canterbury] ought to follow. 640
The Text

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1922). La vie de saint Thomas Becket. C.W.K. Gleerup. pp. 22–. 

120 Mes l'abé d'Evesham aveit dunkes mandé,
Dan Adam de Saint Liz, prudume e renumé ;
Ke pur sun palle alast li aveit comandé.
Dui bon clerc e uns moines i sunt od li alé,
600 E pape Alisandre unt a Munpelier trové.

121 Bon clerc furent des arz, de decré e de lei.
Sa peticiun fist des treis chescon par sei,
E mult parlerent bien e clergilment tut trei.
E Alisandre pape les oï bien, ceo crei,
605 Mes il ne lur fist pas del palliun l'otrei.

122 Il en sunt plusurs feiz as cardunals alé.
Li cardunal lur unt mainte feiz demandé
K'il orent l'apostoile e a els aporté ;
K'il esteient de Rome chacié e debuté,
610 N'aveient de lur rentes un denier muneé.

123 Li messagier lur unt tut adès respundu
K'il de luntein païs esteient la venu ;
Ceo qu'orent aporté, orent pres despendu.
Le palle requereient saintement e a nu ;
615 Ja pur simonials n'en sereient tenu.

124 Unc ne porent plus prendre pur tut lur demander.
Mes quant li abes vit k'il ot liu de parler,
E vit les cardunals entur la pape ester,
Sa requeste mult bel cumença a mustrer ;
620 Mes n'i volt mot de lei ne de decré soner.

125 " Sire, fet il, ceo dit Deus, ki est veritez
(Par tut le deveiz fere, quant el liu Deu seez) :
'Demandez justement ', fet Deus, 'e vus l'avrez ;
Querez le seintement, e vus le troverez ;
625 Li uis vus ert overz, s'al verrai us butez '.
126 " Mult sumes travaillié e mult de luinz venum.
Ceo que volum aver saintement demandum ;
Ici devom trover ceo que nus requerum.
Vus nus overeiz l'us ; dignement i butum.
Vus estes 630 el liu Deu, Deu en vos troverum. "

127 Dunc li dist l'apostoille, quant il ot parfiné :
" Frater , tu prendras ci ceo que as demandé.
Tu l'as quis justement, e tu l'avras trové ;
Nus t'overum mes l'uis, car tu i as buté. "
635 Dunc aveit hum avant le palliun porté.

128 Le palliun lur a l'apostoile chargié,
E il s'en sunt od tut ariere repairié.
Einsi i vint Thomas senz dun e senz pechié ;
N'i ad pur ceo denier ne or n'argent baillié.
640 Essample i deivent prendre li successur del sié.

[Note: John of Salisbury was a member of the group who went to fetch Becket's pallium.]


Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); tr. Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Volume 1.  pp. 61- Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8.

Garnier de Pont Sainte Maxence (1859). Celestin Hippeau, ed. La vie de saint Thomas le martyr, publ. par C. Hippeau. pp. 24–.
La vie de saint Thomas le martyr: archevêque de Canterbury pp. 24-
edited by Célestin Hippeau

La vie de Saint Thomas le martyr  pp. 22-
edited by Emmanual Wahlberg 1922
Lines 596-640 Stanzas 120-128
Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); trans Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8.

Janet Shirley (1975). Garnier's Becket: Translated from the 12th-century Vie Saint Thomas Le Martyr de Cantorbire of Garnier of Pont-Sainte-Maxence. Llanerch. ISBN 978-1-86143-023-6.

Anne J. Duggan (2016). Pope Alexander III (1159–81): The Art of Survival. Chapter 8 Curius Case of Becket's Pallium: Taylor & Francis. pp. 348–. ISBN 978-1-317-07836-4.

The Pallium
The Catholic Historical Review
Vol. 8, No. 1 (Apr., 1922), pp. 64-71
Published by: Catholic University of America Press
Stable URL:

John Morris; Saint Thomas (à Becket) (1859). The Life and Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, Etc. pp. 57–.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Gervase of Canterbury vol 1 p.171
[Says Pope was already at Sens]

Friday, 20 May 2016

The Miracle Cure of Blind Eilward

The Blinding and Emasculation of Eilward


Koopmans, Rachel. "Narrating the Saint’s Works: Conversations, Personal Stories, and the Making of Cults." In Wonderful to Relate: Miracle Stories and Miracle Collecting in High Medieval England, 9-27. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

St. Thomas of Canterbury, his death and miracles
by Edwin Abbott, 1898 Becket Miracle §710 p.80-

The Miracle of St. Thomas' Cure of Blind Eilward - Professor William Ayliffe

The Archaeological Journal.Volume 33
March 1876

Wednesday, 20 April 2016

Garnier: Becket's Flight into Exile

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1922). Emanuel Wahlberg, ed. La vie de saint Thomas Becket. C.W.K. Gleerup. p. 68-
Stanzas 398-447


398 Before he [Thomas] had finished dinner, night had become pitch-dark. In the sight of all his bed was carried into the church, and set up and made ready behind the main altar; and his lambswool cap [monk's cowl?] was carefully positioned on the pillow and the bed cover folded a little over it.

399 When the monks came to sing Compline, they really believed that our hero was asleep there, and they chanted in a lowered voice so as not to disturb him. And they communicated between one another in sign language telling each other to stay away, making it clear that he was tired and that they had to leave him be.

400 He set one of his men to stand guard by his bed. And whenever anyone came there he was made to turn round, and was told to let his lord rest. I cannot find anyone who would want to take a look after this, for they thought that they would still find him there in the morning.

401 Meanwhile he had everything made ready for his journey, but there were only some of his men to whom he wanted to reveal a little. He didn't even want to take his own horses, but instead had four strong chargers [destriers] brought to him outside as if they were for guests who were just about to leave.

402 At that time most of the people were sat down having their supper; then the man of God well knew that he must go. And it was raining quite hard, and it did not want to stop. That night his cape became a burden to him; it needed to be cut back. It was difficult to wear on account of its weight.

403 After dusk, when night had fallen, archbishop Thomas got ready to leave secretly, telling no one, neither his personal advisors  nor cleric, nor relation nor friend, but only three [persons] who had previously been in his service.

404 The good man took with him two brothers in white habits [Gilbertine lay canons]. One of the two was called Robert de Cave, so I have heard, and brother Scaiman was the other one. And he did not wish to forget one of his squires, Roger de Bray, a brown haired, worthy young man.

405 He made known his plan to these two brothers who had come to him from Sempringham. And to his squire who was [also] in his confidence. They went out [of Northampton] at night via the north gate. They did not encounter anyone there; neither were they seen by anyone else.

406 But a watch had been ordered to be kept on all the gates of the town. I cannot acquaint you with the reason why this was done: nonetheless, given the circumstances, we can well form an opinion on this. But our noble hero had sent men to check the gates. This [gate] alone was found to be without guard and without gatekeeper.

407 Archbishop Thomas had no care to delay. Well he had been acquainted, that if he waited till morning he would be put in prison; and he feared this. Under the stars and in the darkness they set off, and they commended themselves to God our Lord.

408 They travelled by night until dawn and during the day they hid themselves until the evening, concealing themselves amongst monks, amongst nuns, [and] in woods. Rather they did not want to take the direct road, continuing in this manner till they finally came to the sea.

409 The day after, the king's messenger came to him [Becket/to where Becket was supposed to be] three times before terce [ca 9 am/third hour of the morning after dawn] to urge him [Becket], to direct him [Becket] to attend  the court. But he who was guarding him [Becket's bed] would not let him [the messenger] enter, telling him before that he [the messenger] should let him [Becket] still rest. However, [the messenger] was so insistent with him [the guard] that he [the guard] could no longer hide [the truth]any more.

410 Then his [Becket's] marshal, Master William de Capes went to king Henry. to beg for mercy for the retainers of the archbishop, for them not to be mistreated, because the de Brocs were to him [Becket] the fiercest of enemies, and nearly all [his retainers] had gone and fled from them.

411 King Henry then made Randulph de Broc declare throughout Northampton that his men must let the archbishop's own vassals freely leave [the town] in broad daylight. No one would be so foolhardy as he who would dare to harm them. Much against his will Randulph did this; he did not dare to forbid this.

412 But the first night they slipped away with stealth;  on the second day. they entered Lincoln via the direct route where he found lodgings with his men at Master Jacob's. There Thomas donned the grey habit of a [Cistercian] brother  in order to disguise himself better. Afterwards he changed his name from Thomas: from now on he was to be called Christian.

[Note: Nicole was the Norman name for Lincoln]

413 Thomas boarded a small boat before dawn. He secretly took Robert de Cave with him. They passed straight under Lincoln Bridge. And towards Sempringham to its Hermitage they went. Here he stayed in a bed chamber [monk's cell] for eight days or more.

414 Scaiman and Roger proceeded over dry land, And to Sempringham they came and stayed. And secretly they made ready for the journey of the archbishop. Neither to high nor to low did they reveal.their plan. When they saw their opportunity,  it was by night they set off along the road.  

415 Anyone who saw the holy man sat down to eat when Robert was away, would have seen that he was alone, with neither clerk nor knight, neither stranger nor dear friend, nor steward, nor groom [boy], nor cook, nor butler. All one could do would be to take pity of him with one's face dampened by tears. 

416 They stayed at the Hermitage for a long time, long enough for the king to think that they had crossed over the sea. They set off along the road.towards the sea by night. Everywhere they went their lodgings had been prepared beforehand. They even passed by Canterbury at night.

417 Our hero [the noble man] reached the sea, at Sandwich, where he boarded a ship. He was set down between Gravelines and Marck late in the evening. He could not proceed on by foot because he would have become tired quite quickly. He was lent a pair leather soled boots, which one of the brothers had, ones which he laced up and tied around the whole of his ankles. 

418 He fell over on the gravel [beach]  when he tried to hurry.  He got up and took a look at his hands. Then they hired a beast of burden for him which did not have a saddle because they could not find anything else at that moment in time. Even the bridling that its master had provided for it was made of straw.

419 They had found a servant [valet] on the seashore from whom they had rented a horse for eight pence. And when he went for this, he was away for a long time. Then just time when they were imagining they would all be seized or had been denounced  it was then he brought this beast of burden, and Christian was mounted.

[note:vadlet = vadelet/varlet/groom/servnat who looks after horses
William Shakespeare; Samuel Weller Singer; Edmond Malone; Charles Symmons (1826). The Dramatic Works of William Shakespeare: Richard III. Henry VIII. Troilus and Cressida. C. Whittingham. pp. 317–.]

420 They then made him ride two leagues on horseback with no more of a saddle than a cape which they had folded and placed under him.  Then together they travelled by boat [rowed] to Clarmarais. Then they went onto St. Omer, They did not want to delay. Wherever they lodged they concealed their identity.

421 It so happened that lord Richard de Lucy had come to St Omer on his way back from [his pilgrimage to] Santiago de Compostela via Flanders. He approached the archbishop, when he heard they were talking about him.  He would try to reach an accord in everything, he said, with king Henry,

422 if he would come back with him. But he failed [to persuade Becket] to accept this. The archbishop replied that he did not want to return; because he could not in any sense agree to do this. Neither also did he want to surrender up his person. He said he wanted to go.straight to the Pope whose counsel he would follow in everything..

423 Richard replied to him in an angry and disdainful manner "When you do not want to come together with me to the king, I repudiate my allegiance to you  both for my lands and for my men."
The archbishop replied without anger and without arrogance "Richard, you are my man [vassal], so you must render fealty to me."
424 Richard replied to him, "I give back my homage to you."
"I did not lend it to you," he [Thomas] replied promptly to him.
"I am truly not giving anything back to you," he [Richard] said to him [Thomas], "neither fiefs nor tenements. But now be assured you will not get any of these from me, nothing!"

425 Then our hero sent two abbots to the count [of Flanders] who were to ask from him for [a letter of] safe conduct, that he may cross beyond through [the lands of] Flanders, to where he had travelled and landed. He had come from England secretly because he was in dispute with his lord the king..

[Note the Count of Flanders at this time was Thierry of Alsace,_Count_of_Flanders

426 The Count replied to him he would agree to his plan,  but he also said that so great a person as he was in a rich land which was his that he could [easily afford] to retain an archbishop. When Thomas heard this, he spoke to the Bishop of Thérouanne, who been brought to him that night.

427 Because he had great fear for his person when he heard the [count's] response. He took much note of the words that the count had used in his reply and also [the fact] that the count and king Henry were cousins, and they were like-minded and were strong friends. To bishop Milo he divulged his plan. 2135

428 "Put out those candles which are lit," he said to them, "Let God guide us." Thus he escaped. They departed, and he [Thomas] was mounted on a large white horse which had been brought to him from this bishop's [Milo's] own manor. Thus they went on their way. 

430 By night he stole away from his men guided by bishop Milo. They left [the territory of] Flanders; and went on to Soissons.The day after he sent back a message to his own men, whom he had left behind, that he was going to Soissons and that they were to come to him there.

431 But then at this time it so happened something which was to bring him good fortune. And many men have come to consider this to be a miracle. This was because lord Henry of Pisa, who was a cardinal, and king Louis [VII of France] who had come from another direction happened to meet him in the streets of Soissons,

432 [Thomas] explained to them his trial and his exile. The good king Louis [the VII] took pity upon him. And wanted to retain their very great friendship and lord Henry of Pisa promised to help him in everything, and he made no pretence about this.

433 Then messengers were sent by the king Henry all the way to Compiègne, to the king of France, Louis. They referred to the concord which had namely been drawn up when they [the two kings] had made peace with each other. The accord granted and promised to each other

434 That if any one of their vassals was to leave their land, and if in the other's land he was in any place recognised, that he should forthwith be arrested and detained, and should be rendered to his overlord without obstruction. And behold it had now happened: the most important person in the whole [of his (king Henry's] kingdom had fled!

435 And with these messengers came Gilbert Foliot, he was well read, yet he served Astaroth [the Great Duke of Hell] (But then the day came when he knew he had been completely foolish to have one word in conflict with the holy man, when he had fled from Sodom and followed in the footsteps of Lot.)

[Note: Astaroth = the Great Duke of Hell]

436 And Richard of Ilchester was one of the messengers. who was for king Henry [one of] his privy councillors and both minister and justiciar of the whole country. And he brought two sparrow hawks for king Louis. He now follows the straight path having left the [crooked] ways [behind].)

437 William, the good earl of Arundel was one of them; wise, brave and courteous and without any evil to call of. But then he too now had cast the [Golden] Calf, and had done wrong, when he had wanted to put Daniel into the pit [with the lions]. (He was [later] to come to find mercy from the saint at his tomb). 2185

438 Their message was well said and their words well appointed.
"I do not know of whom you speak," said king Louis.
"Sire," they said, "king Henry complains to you about one of the highest men in all of his land, who has gone and fled from England by night." 2190

439 "Archbishop Thomas has done wrong against the king [Henry]. He had power over the whole kingdom. And collected rents from all for days and years. Neither will he render account for all which he had taken. Nor will he suffer the judgement [passed against him]. He has become [a person] of ill repute. 2195

440 "And when [he now] does not render his account to his overlord, [for all] which he has taken possession of, and escapes from justice, it seems to us that he has acted very treacherously [like a felon]. And the king [Henry] now asks you very amiably not to give him refuge in any place in your land. 2200

441 "The archbishop Thomas," said the king [Louis], "indeed I have seen him, the chancellor who served the king Henry well. He has chased him away from [his] kingdom: he has fled from so much hate, that he could not find refuge neither there [in England] nor here [in France].  much has he well rendered that so well he has served. 2205

442 "The archbishop Thomas, definitely, I know him well. Because this is France of the free, by the saints where I have been, that those which monasteries have [the relics] and for those who have come to seek refuge: Much I know he indeed has come [and] here he can have my support. And I would go to meet him if I knew where to find him. 2210

443 Said the earl of Arundel: " Sire, king Louis, well do you know what king Henry has commanded us to tell you,  that he has been your mortal enemy: he has wasted your land and captured your castles. This man constantly forced the king to act badly towards you." 2215

445 "Sire," they said to the king, "ask the Pope, for the love of our king, that if he holds any great affection for him that Thomas the archbishop, who has secretly stolen away from him, neither should he listen to him, nor give him support nor show him any  [kind of] friendship; neither should he believe nor listen to his deceitful lies. 2225

446 Then the king called for brother Franc the almoner. "Go immediately to the Pope. Do not delay. Tell him, if he wants to receive any help from me that  he should both defend the archbishop [his cause] and give him cheer, that he should not let anything in the world divert him from this." 2230

447 Brother Franco was very close [privy] to the Pope. And he was assigned to his almonry. He was ready to be in his service day and/or night: for this he was greatly renowned by all. He had at that time come to see king Louis. 2235

Ainceis fu neire nuit que il eüst supé.
Sun lit unt, veant tuz, enz el mustier porté,
Detriés le grant autel e fait e aturné,
E sun chapel d'aigneaus sur l'oreillier levé,
1990 Le covertur un poi par desus reversé.

E quant li moinie vindrent lur complie chanter,
Quidierent il pur veir que se dormist li ber ;
E chanterent en bas, car nel voldrent quivrer.
E li uns roveit l'autre par signes a tagler :
1995 Mustreient qu'il ert las, c'um le laissast ester. [p. 62]

Un suen humme i out mis pur le lit [ a ]guarder.
E quant nul i veneit, sil faiseit returner,
E diseit qu'um lessast sun seignur reposer ;
Ja puis n'en trovast un quil volsist reguarder ;
2000 Encore l'endemain l'i quidierent trover.

Endementres ad fait tut sun eire aprester.
Mais poi i eut des suens qu'il le volsist mustrer.
N'unkes n'en volt un sul de ses chevals mener,
Mais quatre forz destriers fist la fors amener,
2005 Cum s'il fussent as ostes qui deüssent errer.

Dunc seeient les genz le plus a lur super.
Dunc vit bien li huem Deu qu'il s'en deveit aler.
E il pluveit tant fort qu'il ne voleit cesser.
La nuit fist il sa chape une feiz recouper :
2010 A enviz la poeit - issi pesout - porter.

Quant il fu anuitié e tut fu aseri,
L'arcevesque Thomas s'est apresté einsi
D'errer celeement qu'a nului nel gehi,
N'a privé ne a clerc, n'a parent n'a ami,
2015 Fors sulement a treis qui l'orent ainz servi.

Dous freres blancs mena ovec sei li buens ber :
Robert de Cave oï l'un des dous apeler,
E frere Scaïman oï l'autre numer.
E un suen escuier n'i volt il ublïer :
2020 Rogier de Brai, un brun, un prode bacheler.

A ces dous freres a sun conseil coneü,
Qui de Sempingeham furent a lui venu,
E a sun escuier, qui privez de lui fu.
Par la porte del nort s'en sunt nuitantre eissu :
2025 N'i furent encontré, nul d'els, n'aparceü.

Mais um faiseit les portes del burc tutes guaitier ;
E pur quei um le fist, nel vus sai acuintier.
Purquant sulunc le tens en poum bien jugier.
Mais li ber enveiad pur les portes cerchier :
2030 Cele sule trova senz guaite e senz portier.

L'arcevesque Thomas n'out cure de sujur.
Bien li fu acuintié, s'il atendist le jur,
Il fust mis en prisun ; e de ç'aveit poür.
As esteilles s'en vunt e a la tenebrur,
2035 E se sunt comandé a Deu nostre seignur.

Tute la nuit erreient entresqu'a l'ajurner,
E le jur se muçowent d'ici qu'a l'avesprer
Od muines, od noneins, en bois, pur els celer.
Mais ne voleient pas le dreit chemin errer,
2040 Tant que a la parfin sunt venu a la mer. -

Einz tierce l'endemain l'ala treis feiz haster
Li messagiers le rei, rova l'a curt aler.
Mais cil qui guarda l'uis ne l'i laissa entrer,
Ainz dist qu'il le laissast uncore reposer,
2045 Tant qu'um le hasta mult, k'um nel pout plus celer.

Dunc est li mareschals alez al rei Henri,
Danz Willames de Capes, si li cria merci
Des hummes l'arcevesque, que ne fussent leidi.
Kar li Brocheis li erent durement enemi,
2050 E tuit s'en erent pres alé e departi.

Dunc fist li reis Henris Randulf del Broc crïer
Par tute Norhantune que l'um laissast aler
Les hummes l'arcevesque quitement de jur cler ;
Nuls ne fust si hardi quis osast adeser.
2055 Enviz le fist Randuls, mais ne l'osa veer. -

Mais la premiere nuit qu'il s'en fu si emblez,
Le secunt jur, tut dreit est en Nicole entrez.
Chiés dan Jacob s'esteit od les suens ostelez.
Gris dras d'un frere ad pris, k'il puisse estre celez :
2060 Or est Thomas changiez, Cristïens est numez.

En un batel ainz jur saint Thomas s'en entra ;
Robert de Cave od sei priveement mena.
Dreit par desuz le punt de Nicole passa,
E vers Sempingeham a l'Ermitorie ala.
2065 Uit jurs en une chambre, u plus, i demura.

Scaïmans e Rogiers par secche terre alerent,
E a Sempingeham furent e sujurnerent
E l'eire l'arcevesque a celee aturnerent ;
Ne a haut ne a bas lur conseil ne mustrerent.
2070 Quant il virent lur aise, par nuit s'acheminerent.

Qui veïst le saint humme seeir a sun mangier,
Que il n'aveit od lui ne clerc ne chevalier,
Quant Roberz s'en eissi, ne estrange ne chier,
Senescal ne garçun ne cou ne buteillier,
2075 De pitié l'en poüst trestut le vis muillier.

Quant a l'Ermitorie orent lungement sujorné,
Que li reis quida bien qu'il fussent mer passé,
Envers la mer se sunt nuitantre acheminé.
Mais par tut furent ainz li ostel apresté ;

2080 Nis parmi Cantorbire en sunt nuitantre alé.

A la mer vint li ber, a Sandwiz eschipa.
Entre Gravnige e Merc tart al seir ariva.
Ne pout aler a pié, car mult tost s'alassa.
Uns granz sollers aveit, k'uns freres li presta ;
2085 Entur le col del pié a nuals les laça.

Chaüz est el gravier, quant se hasta d'aler.
Leva s'en, si a pris ses mains a reguarder.
Dunc li unt un jument senz sele fait luer,
Car ne porent nul autre a cele feiz trover ;
2090 Nis de fain l'aveit fait sis maistre enchevestrer.

Il orent un vadlet en la greve trové,
A cui un cheval unt pur uit deniers lué.
E quant puroec ala, mult aveit demuré ; 
Idunc quiderent estre tuit pris u encusé.
2095 Cel jument amena ; Cristïen unt munté.

Tut a as li unt fait dous liwes chevalchier,
Ne mais que d'une chape qu'unt fait suz li pleier.
Dunc se firent ensemble a Clermareis nagier ;
Puis vunt a Saint Omer, ne s'i volent targier.
2100 Mais par tut se feseient repundre al herbergier.

Dunc vint a Saint Omer danz Richarz de Luci.
De Saint Jame par Flandres sun chemin acuilli.
A l'arcevesque vint, quant parler en oï.
Del tut l'acordereit, ço dit, al rei Henri,
2105 Se returnout od lui. Mais il i ad failli.

L'arcevesque respunt : ne volt pas returner ;
Car il nel purreit pas en nul sens acorder,
N'a lui ne volt il pas einsi sun cors livrer.
A l'apostolie volt, ço dit, tut dreit aler,
2110 Par ki conseil voldra del tut en tut errer.

Richarz li respundi par ire e par buffei :
" Quant ne volez venir ensemble od mei al rei,
Or vus desfi ge dunc e des miens e de mei. "
L'arcevesque respunt senz ire e senz desrei :
2115 " Richarz, tu es mis huem, si me deis porter fei. "

Richarz li respundi : " Mun humage vus rent.
- Jo nel te prestai pas, fait li il erramment ;
Mais de mei ne tendras ja mais veraiement.
- Ne vus rent, fait li il, ne fiu ne tenement ;
2120 Mais ne vus afïez des ore en mei neent. "

Dunc enveia li bers al cunte dous abez,
Qu'il li doinse conduit, qu'il seit ultre passez
Par Flandres, u il est venuz e arivez ;
Car d'Engleterre esteit priveement turnez
2125 Pur le rei sun seignur, ve rs qui il ert medlez.

Li quens li respundi : sun conseil en prendra ;
E tant est riches huem qu'en la terre qu'il a,
Ço dit, qu'un arcevesque retenir bien purra.
Quant l'arcevesque l'ot, a l'evesque en parla,
2130 Celui de Terewane, qui la nuit l'en mena.

Car mult cremi de sei, quant le respuns oï.
Mult nota les paroles que li quens respundi,
Pur ço que li quens ert cusins le rei Henri,
E erent d'un conseil e durement ami.
2135 A l'evesque Milun sun conseil en gehi.

Il ert le jur venuz l'arcevesque veeir.
E quant il s'en ala la nuit en l'oscur seir,
L'arcevesque Thomas, ki mult out grant saveir,
Le conveia la fors. Pur desaparceveir
2140 Fist estaindre les cirges, qu'um nel peüst veeir.

" Esteigniez, fait lur il, ces cirges alumez.
Laissiez l'aler a Deu. " Ensi s'est delivrez.
Il se trestrent ariere, e il esteit muntez
Sur un grant cheval blanc, qui li fu amenez
2145 De la curt cel evesque. Einsi s'en est turnez.

De ses hummes einsi nuitantre s'en embla.
Par l'evesque Milun, qui la nuit l'en mena,
De Flandres est eissuz ; a Seissuns s'en ala.
L'endemain a ses hummes ariere remanda
2150 Qu'il alout a Seissuns ; a lui venissent la.

Mais mult li esteit bien a cel'ure avenu
E maint humme l'unt puis a miracle tenu :
Car danz Henris de Pise, qui des chardenaus fu,
E li reis Loëwis sunt d'autre part venu ;
2155 Es rues de Seissuns sunt entreconeü.

Sa cause e sun eissil lur aveit denuntié.
Li buens reis Loëwis en ad eü pitié,
E sil volt retenir par mult grant amistié.
Et danz Henris de Pise li ad covenantié [p. 67]
2160 Par tut li aidera. Si fist il senz faintié.

Dunc a li reis Henris ses messagiers tramis
Tresqu'a Conpeigne al rei de France, Loëwis.
E dit qu'en la cuncorde, quant hum les fist amis,
Que l'un d'els a l'autre out otrïé e pramis,
2165 E que numeement fu en l'acorde mis


Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); tr. Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8.

Guernes de Pont-Sainte-Maxence (1838). Immanuel Bekker, ed. Leben des h. Thomas von Canterbury, Altfranzösisch ; herausgegeben von Immanuel Bekker. Nicolai. pp. 31–.


John Morris; Saint Thomas (à Becket) (1859). The Life and Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, Etc. pp. 147–.

Mrs. Anne Hope; Bernard Dalgairns (1868). The Life of S. Thomas À Becket ... (With a Preface by Father Dalgairns). pp. 137–. 

William Holden Hutton (8 May 2014). Thomas Becket. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-1-107-66171-4.

Rose Graham (1901). S. Gilbert of Sempringham and the Gilbertines: a history of the only English monastic order. E. Stock. pp 17-

St. Gilbert of Sempringham: 1089-1189. Sands. 1913. pp. 148–.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 115–6. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Pierre Aubé (1988). Thomas Becket. Chapitre IV - Le Rebelle: Fayard. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-2-213-64899-6.

Sharla Race (2011). Aelred of Rievaulx: Cistercian Monk and Medieval Man: A Twelfth Century Life. Sharla Race. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-1-907119-02-6.

"Houses of the Gilbertine order: The priory of Sempringham," in A History of the County of Lincoln: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London: Victoria County History, 1906), 179-187. British History Online,

Settlement and Society. CUP Archive. pp. 69–

Hermitage of Hoyland  Coordinates 53.042535N,0.129946W

Tuesday, 19 April 2016

Miracle Story: Mad Matilda of Cologne

Canterbury Cathedra; Miracle Window
Mad Matilda of Cologne


Edwin Abbott Abbott (1898). St. Thomas of Canterbury: his death and miracles. Volume 1. A. and C. Black. pp. 314–5.

J.C. Robertson and J.B. Sheppard (eds.), Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, vol. II (London, 1876), pp. 208-209. -

§ [558] The madness of Matilda of Cologne

Saturday, 19 March 2016

Bur-le-Roi, Near Bayeaux


Bur,   s . m.   Habitation;   de l'islandais   Bud   ou   du   latin Burgus .   Il  y   avait   à   Noron,   près  de   Bayeux, une   ferme,   appartenante   aux rois   de   la   première   race   qui s 'appelait  Bur-le-roi.

David Bates (2012). Anglo-Norman Studies XXXIV: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2011. Boydell Press. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-84383-735-0.

Noron Cassini Map 94 1760
Cassini Map

Château du Bur, à Noron-la-Poterie
Possession des Ducs de Normandie, XIIe siècle

Revue de la Normandie pp. 254-60
Essai Historique sur le Chateau de Bur pres Bayeaux par M. le vicomte H. de Toustain

BAYEUX. Carte particuliere du Diocese de Bayeux, par Petite, 1675.
BNF Gallica Reference ark:/12148/btv1b55000277g
Carte particuliere du Diocese de Bayeux, par Petite, 1675.

Quand les rois d’Angleterre fêtaient Noël dans le Calvados Histoire Normande - 1100 ans d'histoire de la Normandie

Castle Bures-le-Roy.
This castle is a mystery: it was long considered to be a royal residence which had disappeared from our landscape forgotten. We didn't even know where it stood, which attracted many insatiable researchers. Some of them were deceived by the resemblance between the names Bur-le-Roy and Balleroy, but had to admit that the trail ended there. Around 1830, some regional historians resumed researches, and proposed some interesting hypotheses. Reading the old medieval charters this persuaded them to search the countryside around Noron-la-Poterie and that's where they found a few meagre remains of a castle built at around the same time as that of Bayeux, which has also disappeared. Ideally located in the woods, near a stream, Castle Bur was undoubtedly an important royal palace. At Christmas like at Easter Henry II liked to hunt and party. One chronicler said that the king summoned a large assembly setting up a table for 110 knights in a single room or chamber!

Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie. Société des antiquaires de Normandie. 1825. pp. 80–.

Caumont Arcisse de (1835). Cours d'antiquites monumentales ... Histoire de l'art dans l'ouest de la France depuis les temps d plus recules jusqu'au XVII siecle. - Paris, Lance 1830-1841. Bures, près de Bayeaux: Lance. pp. 244–.

J. Bidot (1860). Histoire de Balleroy et des environs. Elie fils. pp. 95–.

Mathieu Arnoux (2010). La Normandie dans l'économie européenne (XIIe-XVIIe siècle): colloque de Cerisy-la-Salle (4-8 octobre 2006). Publications du CRAHM. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-2-902685-69-1.

Joseph-Marc Bailbé (1980). Le Paysage normand dans la littérature et dans l'art. Publication Univ Rouen Havre. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-2-87775-635-8.


Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie. Société des antiquaires de Normandie. 1825. pp. 73–.

Thomas Stapleton; Society of Antiquaries of London (1840). Magni rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae sub regibus Angliae: contains "the Roll of 1180, the fragment of the Roll of 1184 (being all that is extant of the reign of Henry II.) and the earlier Roll of Richard I." (1195). sumptibus Soc. antiq. londiniensis. pp. 191–.

Thomas Stapleton; Society of Antiquaries of London (1840). Magni rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae sub regibus Angliae: contains "the Roll of 1180, the fragment of the Roll of 1184 (being all that is extant of the reign of Henry II.) and the earlier Roll of Richard I." (1195). sumptibus Soc. antiq. londiniensis. pp. 61–.

Joseph-Marc Bailbé (1980). Le Paysage normand dans la littérature et dans l'art. Publication Univ Rouen Havre. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-2-87775-635-8

Wednesday, 16 March 2016

Garnier: Christmastide 1170

990  And so St. Thomas returned to his see, where he remained in his archbishopric for the rest of his life. Whenever he saw the poor, he took pity, working to serve God night and day. Well he knew he faced his martyrdom, for sure he had foreseen it.

991 But on the day of Christmas, whilst he delivered his sermon he severed [excommunicated]  from holy church Robert de Broc who had two days earlier committed such ignominy; he had cut off the tail of his pack-horse [sumpter] horse, and others who  had strayed from the path against him.

992 He explained to the people the sentences upon [the excommunications and suspensions of] the bishop of London, and that [of the bishop] of Salisbury, Joscelin by name, and that [of the archbishop of] York, who had usurped the authority and great[er] privilege of the [archbishop of the] church of Holy Trinity [namely the right of the See of Canterbury] to anoint kings.

993 And of Randolf de Broc who had afflicted him tremendously and had many times his men [servants/tenants/those who owe allegiance to him] often imprisoned. Then he cursed [maledictum] all those who had brought him into wrong with the king, and who caused the quarrel between them, and those who meddled with his avowed lord.

994 <<By Jesus Christ,>> he said <<they are truly cursed!>> Then, as he spoke this word, he threw the candle down onto the paving in defiance, so that their names would be struck from the book of remembrance, and they would be sent away from the kingdom [of Heaven], for which the good are selected.

995 When Roger de Pont-l'Évêque saw and heard that he had been excommunicated and placed under an interdict, he wished neither to come before the law [ecclesiastical court] nor to plead for mercy, for he had a wicked heart, both gross and arrogant, and the devil [Satan] had taken up his throne within it.

996 But the other prelates, his two companions, Gilbert Foliot and Joscelin by name, wanted to go and make satisfaction before their archbishop both by rightful argument and reasoning.  Well were both aware of all their misdeeds.

997 But he of  Pont-l'Évêque led them astray. against God and reason, off the straight path and way. He wanted to have them as companions in his evil enterprise. <<I beg you>> he said, <<not to take that path, lest piety turns you around.

998 >> He [Thomas] could very quickly deceive you and make you change your mind  But I have ten thousands pounds worth in my treasury, which to spend all to appease this, rather than not to bring down Thomas and all his pride. He cannot bring a greater force against my wealth.

999 >> Let us now cross over the sea. Let us go to the king who is there, who will support us still until even more in this. Both us and our cause against him he will uphold  If you give up on this do you know what he will do?

1000 >> And if you turn and take up with [the king's] enemy. you will never again have his [the king's] affection so long as you shall live. You will never recover his grace; he will say that you have fled from reason and transgressed.  And if he brought you to trial, you will lose your possessions.

1001 >> What then can you do? Where would you go to beg? And if to the king you would hold and swear allegiance, what more can Thomas do to go against you? He has already sentenced you, what more can he do to bind you, because there is no truth in it to support it.>>

1002 They were bewitched so they were prepared to go with him. They came to the ship and set off across the sea. Roger Pont-l'Évêque could not  hide what was in his heart: << Thomas, Thomas,>> he said, << you have made me cross the sea, I will overturn you with a bad pillow as your headrest.>>

1003 Soon after they had crossed the sea, they forwarded to the king the letter [they had received] from the Papal See which had taken away their ministries. As long as the king has lived, he has had a heart full of wrath. He clapped his hands together and bewailed without pretence.

1004 He went into his [audience] chamber, pale with anger, shouting loudly that he had given nourishment to a wicked man and raised up an evil person who had taken of his bread and hospitality. Was there no one at all who shared his pain? Those of his men [who were present] were much frightened by what he said.

1005 They said: <<So what is it the king is lamenting about? Even if he were to see his sons and wife buried or the whole of his country set ablaze and burnt down, he ought not to have been tormented so. If he has heard anything well he ought to reveal what it is.

1006 >> Moreover, one should not always heed what one has heard. We are ready to fulfill all his commands, to smash down and assault both castles and cities, for our bodies and souls to suffer the dangers of death. It is wrong to complain to us if he does not want to explain what the matter is.>>

1007 <<A man,>> said the king, <<who has eaten my bread,  a man who came to my court poor,  and whom I had raised to the highest, has kicked me in the teeth with his talons out. He has reviled my lineage and my kingdom! The sorrows have pierced me to the heart, and no one has avenged me of him.>>

1008 Immediately the whole court began to run around like ants, and to take it upon themselves to reproach one another very much, and the holy archbishop to threaten extremely. In faith several began to swear oaths that they would hastily avenge the humiliation brought upon the king.

1009 When the three companions [the excommunicated and suspended bishops] had completed their passage [across the sea], they went straight to Bur-le-Roi, where they found the king. They threw themselves down at his feet and cried out unto him for mercy, lamenting exceedingly, and made a show with pleas and tears, and great sadness.

1010 Then the king Henry very greatly changed his countenance; and directed them to stand up, and commanded them to say what was causing them such great grief. Archbishop Roger spoke first; well he knew how to stir up evil, [and lead] from both the rear as well as the front.

1011  <<Sire king,>> he said to him, <<well should we grieve, and in any case I can tell you and explain; but these two others cannot speak to anyone without that person falling under and having the same sentence which Thomas has placed upon them after he came back from over the sea.

1012 >> He has excommunicated all those who attended the coronation of your son, and likewise, all those who gave consent to it.>>
<<Then I too am not an exception,>> said the king immediately. << by the eyes of God, because I desired and gave consent to it.>>

1013 <<Sire,>> said the archbishop <<how much must it be for you to share the burden with us, for we can suffer it better. He sends your free men away from holy church and makes your bishops lie under excommunication. and neither does he want still to stop at that.

1014  >> After he had arrived back in the country he travelled around through your land surrounded by a great number of men: knights and sergeants bearing arms, at hand, out of fear of being exiled for a second time, and in search of recruits everywhere so that he could increase his strength.

1015 >> We are not complaining for ourselves, neither are we aggrieved that we have spent and laid waste to our wealth, and in your service have suffered hardship and pain for this, which we have done out of loyalty to you, as long as we have not been severed from your affection.

1016 >> But in this, in which he has acted towards us with such a wrong, as if we were evil men, he has shamed and defamed us. If you were to do anything about this, you would not be blamed for it; but if you were to wait until he feels secure, well and in a complete hush will you be able to have vengeance.>>

1017 The letter from the Pope was fetched, the one which told the three prelates that they had been severed from their profession [métier]. It was read out aloud in audience for all to hear. Then from all sides evil intent was embraced, with threats made against and extreme shame brought down upon St. Thomas.

1018 Christmas day that year fell on a Friday, and the day of its vigil [Christmas Eve], was therefore a Thursday, on which this council and God's enemies met. And they swore to kill God's friend. They were intending to batter him down,  but it was they who were to be disgraced.

1019 Then they swore upon [the relics of] a saint] and made mutual pledges that they would seek for him in all the places of the world,  that they would pull his tongue out through [a hole] under his chin and would gouge out both of the eyes in his head. Not even a monastery. nor altar nor church would prevent from doing this.

1020 The [king's audience] chamber at Bur[le-Roi] has had an unusual destiny; in it great amount of significant news is often heard: it was here that Rainild [Adeliza?] was given in promise [of marriage] to Harald, that the host of England swore pledged fealty to the Bastard, and the death of St. Thomas was affirmed and sworn. 

1021 The great majority of the court bound themselves to make and perform this act of great cruelty. But I will not write down in my book any names, when by their repentance to God they have been pardoned: they will not be shamed in this world by my writing.

1022 They were so very inspired by the wicked man that they were led astray: the majority of the court, and all the most worthy, and all the most sensible, both English and Norman. And they went to the ports, some here, some there: Dieppe and Winchelsea, Barfleur and Witsand.

1023 All who were listening wanted to cross the sea, if they could, to keep watch in all the ports of England and guard that no man could enter England who might reveal to the archbishop about this matter, so that he could not turn and run away from this.

1024 If they could have crossed [the sea] at this time, perhaps they might not have done that which they were to do, but it happened that neither the wind nor the time were favourable.  Neither did God have so much hate that they were found to be in this, nor did the devil hold so much power over them.


Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); tr. Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Volume 1.  pp. 290- Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8.

La vie de saint Thomas le martyr: archevêque de Canterbury pp. 172-
edited by Célestin Hippeau

La vie de Saint Thomas le martyr  pp. 167-
edited by Emmanual Wahlberg 1922
Line 4971- Stanza 995-
Leben des h. Thomas von Canterbury, Altfranzösisch ; herausgegeben von Immanuel Bekker. Nicolai. 1838. pp. 129–.

Monday, 7 March 2016

John of Salisbury on Murder of Becket

Letter 307/304
John of Salisbury to Bishop John Belmeis of Poitiers
"Ex Insperato et in transitu ..."

Translation in
O'Connor, John Francis, "An Annotated Translation of the Letters of John of Salisbury" (1947). Master's Theses. Paper 672.
Letter 307/304
John of Salisbury to Bishop John Belmeis of Poititers

Latin version
Materials for the history of Thomas Becket Vol 7 pp. 462-   MTB Epistola 748
Joannes Saresberiensis ad Joannem Picatavensem Episcopum