Thursday, 4 February 2016

Becket's Early Life according to Garnier

Stanzas 34- 

Translation
34 Saint Thomas, the archbishop, about whom you are to hear me preach, it is completely true that he was begotten in the City of London, and was descended from and raised amongst the barons of the City: and his father was called Gilbert Becket, and his mother, Mathilda; he was the offspring of refined people. 

35  When the lady first conceived the child, she dreamt that all the waters of the Thames entered her breast.
She told this to a savant, who explained the meaning to her "Your heir will govern many people." But according to me, this meant that within her womb a spring of pure water ran..

36 God revealed to her yet another very beautiful dream. She saw herself coming to the [Church of the] Holy Trinity; but as she tried to cross the threshold, her womb was so swollen that she could not enter. It seems to me, in truth, that the whole of Sion could not contain the goodness of Thomas.

37 On another occasion, just before she was about to have the child, she dreamt that the twelve great stars of heaven fell before her chair. This was of great significance because all the twelve tribes [of Israel] bowed down before him, and he would become one of the twelve who would judge them.

38 After she had given birth to the child, the woman had yet another dream: the child was found lying bare in his cradle; taking great pity, she begged the wet-nurse to cover him, but the nurse replied that he was already well covered by a large folded pall.

39 The pall was scarlet. Both got up and proceeded firmly and hurriedly to unwrap the cloth. The room was small: so they passed on through into the house; but that refuge was too constricted, and so they went out into the street; even that proved much too narrow: so they went to Smithfield.

40 Even Smithfield was still too small for this pall. Then descending upon them from heaven they heard a voice saying that all England could not hold the grandeur of this pall. Well can we understand  that  the blood of the saint had spread throughout the world.

41 Thomas was put into school a very young age. He studied grammar after he had finished with the psalter, he studied the arts and a little singing. He worked diligently, and suffered much pain, but did not dwell for long in the schools.

42 Richier de L'Aigle was wont to lodge at his father's house.  Thomas often went hunting with him in the woods and along river banks, and stayed together with him for well half a year, as I have heard told. It was then that he began to love hounds and falcons very much.

43 One day the child went with him hunting along the river banks: he wanted to learn how to cast off hawks and their behaviour. They reached a wide stream where there was neither bridge nor ferry, but only a plank [passerelle] by which people could cross over on foot. The baron went in front, and the child followed behind.

44 After the knight had crossed over the plank, Thomas followed after, all hooded, but his horse lost its foothold: both he and the horse tumbled over into the water; having come off his saddle he floated downstream..

45 Beside the plank, there was a mill fully grinding away. Into the large ravine [of the mill race?] he went. Thomas came there floating, where he would have fallen head first onto the mill wheel.  The miller, having just finished grinding, shut the sluice gate. Thus it was in this manner God saved the child from death.

46 Because God wanted to protect and save him for the great good to be done, God suffers some others to live and saves even those who may come to perform a very great evil, as well as those who have the need to perform a very great good..

47 According to testimony, he was twenty-one or more when he left college. By very great misfortune he found himself destitute, with very little to live on, because his father and his mother [their enterprise] had foundered in a storm, from which they could never rise again to find a safe haven.

48 For his father had once been a very rich man, and his mother a beautiful lady, in body and looks. They came from well to-do families, and had been very successful; but fire had done this and brought both destruction and loss. So often had they had fires that many times they had nearly been broke.

49 He went to live with one of his kinsmen, Osbern Huit-Deniers, a wealthy Londoner, well known to both the French and English. Afterwards he became one of his scriveners, for two or three years, I know not; it was then he began to be both wise and courteous.

50 But Thomas did so much toing and froing [up and down] that he was introduced to the archbishop by one of his marshals, who was wont many times to lodge at his father's. He came to him finely dressed and well mounted on a horse with the assistance of the spiritual King.

51 Thomas was cunning, and he advanced much with God's help and advice. Day and night he stayed awake; he took pains to serve his master whenever he could. For his advice he was keenly sought by all, while the archbishop often summoned him.

52 Roger de Pont-Évêque became jealous of him, and either by himself or through others had him sent away. Many times he used to refer to him as the clerk of Porte Hache [Hatchet Man]. (This was the name of the man who had brought him to that court.) But Thomas was clever, and outsmarted him.

53 Archbishop Theobald took him to Rome, and then sent him there with his messages often. but whilst there, and elsewhere, he served him so well that the archbishop brought him by his side, and abandoned his private council.

54 When William, the archbishop of York, died, Theobald worked hard to procure the position for his archdeacon, Roger de Pont-Évêque, whom he invested and consecrated.. As for the archdeaconry, he gave this to his clerk, Thomas.


55 He also obtained for him the provostship of Beverley, and gave him the income from many churches and places because he had never found anyone before who served him so well. God gave him the aspiration and he always strove for honour, wisdom and the good.

56 Well he loved the secular sports, to hunt with hounds and birds of prey; he was bountiful and valiant, and had an alive reason and bright intelligence, but he did not refuse anyone who wished to give him something, just as others do who have the power to nourish or to put matters right, and want to rise in the world by means of their own wealth.

57 And the archbishop Theobald had not forgotten him and put him in alliance with king Henry II, who gave him the post of running his chancellery. And it was thus that his honour and estate increased all the time, but he never forgot his place that he was in the service of the king.


Monday, 1 February 2016

Early Life of Becket

Becket was born on St Thomas the Apostle's day, 21st December, in 1118, if calculated from the ages for significant events given later for Becket by his biographers, a date which I personally favour, or far less likely, in 1120 if St Thomas the Apostle's day 21st December is accepted to be one of Becket's Memorable Tuesdays, considered to be so significant by some of his hagiographers later on. He was baptised and named after that saint that same evening in the neighbouring church of St Mary Colechurch. The son of Gilbert Becket and Rohesia (or Matilda), his wife, he was born at his father's house in Cheapside, London, in a largish building on the corner of Ironmonger Lane on land owned by the Mandevilles. His grandparents probably had come from families which originated from Rouen and Caen, in Normandy, but who had moved to England after the Norman Conquest. Becket's mother tongue was Norman French. Gilbert, his father, had a well to-do merchant, and who had many connections with several baronial families. He was now perhaps living off rents. Certainly at one time he held the post of Sheriff in London. William the Conqueror had granted the citizens of London a charter in 1075: London was a growing trading city. Becket was born a freeman into a free family, unencumbered with feudal obligations, humble by not being aristocratic, but bourgeois and relatively well-off.  

At about the age of ten, ca 1128, he was sent to be schooled at Merton Priory in Surrey,an Augustinian establishment staffed by secular canons, one of whom was an Italian called master Guido   Later he was placed in one of the London grammar schools, closer to his home, perhaps nearby St Paul's. 

It was at about this time that he went to stay for a longish period, perhaps six months, with Richer de L'Aigle, baron, Lord of  Pevensey, in Sussex. Richer de L'Aigle was a significant baron of this period: later he was listed as being present when the Constitutions of Clarendon were enacted. Becket probably learned social and military skills here. Certainly he learned to ride, to hunt with dogs, hawking and perhaps jousting, all skills which were to stand him in good stead when he later became a friend and companion to king Henry II. Pevensey Castle was near to good hunting and hawking grounds on the marshlands and waterways of the Pevensey Levels. It was during this period he nearly drown after slipping from his horse crossing a bridge.

When he was about twenty, he spent about a year in Paris.

References

Frank Barlow, ‘Becket, Thomas (1120?–1170)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/27201 Thomas Becket (1120?–1170): doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27201

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. Chapter 1 - The London Merchant's Son - Background and Youth 1120-1143: University of California Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Lewis Bostock Radford (1894). Thomas of London Before His Consecration. University Press.

Julia Barrow (2015). The Clergy in the Medieval World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-1-107-08638-8

Julia Barrow (2015). The Clergy in the Medieval World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 169–. ISBN 978-1-107-08638-8.

 Julia Barrow (2015). The Clergy in the Medieval World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 230–. ISBN 978-1-107-08638-8.

Rye, W., & Thomas, S. (1924). Some New Facts as to the Life of St. Thomas À Becket: Tending to Show that He was... Connected... with Norfolk... Hunt.

Anne Duggan (2004). Thomas Becket. Chapter 1 - The Social Climber: Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-0-340-74138-2.

Garnier, pp. 203–4; Materials, iv. 4, 78, Radford, p. 2.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.
Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. Notes on Royal Chancellor 1155-1162: University of California Press. pp. 287–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.


Raymonde Foreville (1967). Tradition et comput dans la chronologie de Thomas Becket. Impr. nationale.

Bulletin philologique et historique jusqu'à 1715 du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques


James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Chapter II Early Life 1118-54. pp. 10–.

Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, Volume III William Fitzstephen and Herbert of Bosham

History of Latin Christianity Including that of the Popes to the Pontificate of Nicolas 5. by Henry Hart Milman: Vol. 5. John Murray. 1864. pp. 25–.

John Stow (1842). A Survey of London, witten in the year 1598 by John Stow. William Fitzstephen [Stephanides] - A Description of the Most Noble City of London: Whittaker. pp. 208–.
http://www.buildinghistory.org/primary/fitzstephen.shtml
Memorable Tuesdays

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Memorable Tuesdays in Becket's Life. pp. 339–.

Raymonde Foreville (1967). Tradition et comput dans la chronologie de Thomas Becket. Impr. nationale.

Thomas F. Head (2001). Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology. Psychology Press. pp. 592–. ISBN 978-0-415-93753-5.

Reames, S. L. (2005). Reconstructing and interpreting a thirteenth-century office for the translation of Thomas Becket. Speculum80(01), 118-170.
Richer De L'Aigle and Pevensey Castle


Henry of Blois and Brian Fitz-Count
H. W. C. Davis
The English Historical Review Mary Angela Jeeves (1957). St. Thomas Beckett, "most mighty in England": a psychological study. A. H. Stockwell.
Vol. 25, No. 98 (Apr., 1910), pp. 297-303
Published by: Oxford University Press

Rye, W., & Thomas, S. (1924). Some New Facts as to the Life of St. Thomas À Becket: Tending to Show that He was... Connected... with Norfolk... Hunt.

Marjorie Chibnall (1992). Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1991. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 109–. ISBN 978-0-85115-316-2.


Richer de L'Aigle

David Crouch (2014). The Reign of King Stephen: 1135-1154. Routledge. pp. 173–. ISBN 978-1-317-89297-7.

J. D. Parry (1833). An historical and descriptive account of the coasts of Sussex. Pevensey Rape: Longmann. pp. 265–.
Pevensey Castle Map http://goo.gl/8roJAf


Kathleen Thompson, ‘Aigle, Richer de l' (c.1095–1176)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/47232
Richer de l' Aigle (c.1095–1176): doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/47232

Osbert Huitdeniers

Aka  Osbern Eightpenny "Octonummi" "Huit-deniers", possibly so nicknamed because he may have been a moneylender charging perhaps 8 pence [deniers] per mark [13s 4d],  that is a 5% interest for loans, although seeking profit on a loan was considered to be the mortal sin of usury.

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. pp. 19–.

Noonan, John T., Jr. 1993. "Development of Moral Doctrine." 54 Theological Stud. 662.
http://cdn.theologicalstudies.net/54/54.4/54.4.3.pdf 

Marjorie Chibnall (1992). Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1991. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 109–. ISBN 978-0-85115-316-2 

David Crouch (6 June 2014). The Reign of King Stephen: 1135-1154. Osbert Huitdeniers: Routledge. pp. 173–. ISBN 978-1-317-89297-7.

Henry of Blois and Brian Fitz-Count
H. W. C. Davis
The English Historical Review Mary Angela Jeeves (1957). St. Thomas Beckett, "most mighty in England": a psychological study. A. H. Stockwell.
Vol. 25, No. 98 (Apr., 1910), pp. 297-303
Published by: Oxford University Press
 
 

Tuesday, 26 January 2016

Becket's Itinerary from end of the Council of Westminster to the end of his trial at the Council of Northampton


Becket's known and documented itinerary from end of the Council of Westminster to the end of his trial at the Council of Northampton at Northampton Castle for  lèse-majesté [treason] and peculation [embezzlement] at Northampton Castle.



DateLocationReference
Nov/Dec 1163Hilary, bishop of Chichester has a discourse with Becket at Teynham Manor.MTB iv 30
Nov/Dec 1163Meeting  with Abbé de l'Aumone, Robert de Melun and the Count of Vendôme at Harrow ManorMTB iv 31
Nov/Dec 1163Meeting with king at Woodstock at king's hunting lodge [or atOxford]MTB iv 32
22nd Dec 1163Consecration of Robert de Melun as bishop of Hereford at CanterburyGervas. i 176
13th-28th January 1164Council of Clarendon held at Clarendon Palace to enact the Constitutions of ClarendonMTB v 71-79
End January 1164Becket travels to Winchester immediately after Council of ClarendonGervas i 181
March 1164Becket has meeting with king at Woodstock, king's hunting lodge. It came to nothing.Eyton 70 footnote 3
19th April 1164Dedication of the church at Reading AbbeyEyton 71
23rd August 1164Roger consecrated bishop of Worcester at Canterbury by BecketAnn. Mon. i 49
Summer 1164Becket goes univited to Woodstock, king's hunting lodge, but is turned away.MTB iii 49
Eyton 73
Summer 1164 Becket goes to Romney preparing to cross over Channel [secretly] to see Pope Alexander IIIMTB iii 49
Eyton 73
Summer 1164 Becket at Aldington Manor awaiting ship to cross the Channel.MTB ii 325
Summer 1164The ship turned back twice, once due to poor weather, and another because he was recognised. Becket returns to Canterbury.Gervase i 182
Summer 1164Becket goes to visit king at Woodstock, who upbraids him mildly about his attempt to leave the country without his permission.
14th September 1164Date set by summons for Becket to attend Curia Regis in Westminster as defendant in case brought by John Marshal. He fails to attend.Eyton 73
6th-13th October 1164
 
Council of Northampton in Great Hall of Northampton Castle. The Trial of BecketMTB iii 50-6
 

References


 
Teynham - Wikipedia 
Teynham Archbishops Palace (The Gatehouse Record)
Parishes Tenham British History Online

Constitutions of Clarendon- The Manor at Harrow

Constitutions of Clarendon- Woodstock Hunting Lodge, Palace and Manor
A P Baggs, W J Blair, Eleanor Chance, Christina Colvin, Janet Cooper, C J Day, Nesta Selwyn and S C Townley, 'Blenheim: Woodstock manor', in A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 12, Wootton Hundred (South) Including Woodstock, ed. Alan Crossley and C R Elrington (London, 1990), pp. 431-435 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol12/pp431-435

Constitutions of Clarendon- Clarendon Palace

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. pp. 106–.William Holden Hutton (8 May 2014). Thomas Becket. 2 failed attempts to cross the Channel: Cambridge University Press. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-1-107-66171-4.
 

Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Volume II - Cambridge University Press
https://archive.org/stream/materialsforhist02robe#page/n7/mode/2up

Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Volume 3
https://archive.org/details/materialsforhist03robe Volume 3
p. 49 https://goo.gl/q0E7b6
Materials for the history of Thomas Becket: Volume 3 p. 49

Court, household and itinerary of King Henry II - R.W. Eyton pp. 70-1
'Houses of Benedictine monks: The abbey of Reading,' in A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 2, ed. P H Ditchfield and William Page (London: Victoria County History, 1907), 62-73,
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/berks/vol2/pp62-73


Constitutions of Clarendon- Becket's Attempt To Consult With The Pope

Gervase of Canterbury; William Stubbs. The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury. Cambridge University Press. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-108-05159-0.

The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury vol i p. 181

Annales monastici i 49 Annales de Theokesberia  

Eyton p. 73 https://goo.gl/E6KoJ9

Sunday, 24 January 2016

Translation of the Body of Edward the Confessor to its New Shrine, 13th Oct 1163






Essentially this ceremony was a political act.

Henry I in his coronation charter affirmed that the basic laws enforced in his kingdom, the law of the land, would be those which operated under Edward the Confessor (1041-65), Leges Edwardi Confessoris. These were actually codified much later, under kings William I and II.

Henry II who wished for continuity with those laws which were operational under Henry I, his grandfather, to reinforce his own legal authority, decided to give support to Edward the Confessor's canonization. England would have a royal personage as its national saint. Edward could be used to strengthen his royal position in the general struggle between church and state.

On 7th February 1161 Pope Alexander III issued the bull of canonization more than probably as a favour to king Henry as Henry had lent his full support to Alexander, at the time of the papal schism.. Some two years later, on 13th Oct 1163. the body of Edward the Confessor was translated to a new shrine in Westminster Abbey specially erected for him. Becket oversaw the ceremony, at which were present all the bishops of the land as well as the king.


References

Archive.gr - Sanctity and Politics the Canonization of St Gilbert - St Edward the Confessor
https://goo.gl/EvpP7D

The Cult of St. Edward the Confessor 1066-1399 - ORA 
http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:4fd4967c-0cde-4257-841f-16dc36900ce2

The Canonization of Edward the Confessor
Bernhard W. Scholz
Speculum
Vol. 36, No. 1 (Jan., 1961), pp. 38-60
Published by: University of Chicago Press
DOI: 10.2307/2849843
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2849843

John Guy (2012). Thomas Becket: Warrior, Priest, Rebel, Victim: A 900-Year-Old Story Retold. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 249–. ISBN 978-0-14-193328-3.



George Lewis SMYTH (1843). Biographical Illustrations of Westminster Abbey. pp. 3–.

Annals of Westminster abbey E.T. Bradley 1898 p.24-5

Christopher Harper-Bill; Nicholas Vincent (2007). Henry II: New Interpretations. Boydell Press. pp. 382–. ISBN 978-1-84383-340-6.

Dr David A. Woodman; Dr Martin Brett (28 February 2015). The Long Twelfth-Century View of the Anglo-Saxon Past. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 199–. ISBN 978-1-4724-2817-2. 

James J. Spigelman (2004). Becket & Henry: The Becket Lectures. James Spigelman. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-0-646-43477-3.

Geo Townsend (1847). Ecclesiastical and Civil History Philosophically Considered, with Reference to the Future Re-union of Christians. Causes of the Canonization of Edward the Confessor: Rivington. pp. 425–.

Frank Barlow (1970). Edward the Confessor. Appendix D - Correspondence concerning Edward's Canonization: University of California Press. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-0-520-01671-2

Frank Barlow (1970). Edward the Confessor. Appendix E - Date of the First Translation: University of California Press. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-0-520-01671-2.

David Wallace (2002). The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Cambridge University Press. pp. 128–. ISBN 978-0-521-89046-5.

John Guy (5 April 2012). Thomas Becket: Warrior, Priest, Rebel, Victim: A 900-Year-Old Story Retold. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 249–. ISBN 978-0-14-193328-3.


John Morris; Saint Thomas (à Becket) (1859). The Life and Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, Etc. pp. 77–.

John Morris; Saint Thomas (à Becket) (1859). The Life and Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, Etc. pp. 84–.

A historical description of Westminster Abbey. Print. for the Vergers in the Abbey. 1853. pp. 24–.

Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey. 1869. pp. 126–.

Diana Greenway; Christopher Holdsworth (2002). Tradition and Change: Essays in Honour of Marjorie Chibnall Presented by Her Friends on the Occasion of Her Seventieth Birthday. Raymonde Foreville - Canterbury et la canonisation des saints: Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-0-521-52499-5.

  
 

Wednesday, 20 January 2016

Becket's Itinerary from his Consecration as Archbishop to the Council of Westminster


Documented known locations of Becket from his election and consecration as archbishop to the Council of Westminster, October 1163

DateLocationReference
23rd May 1162Becket election confirmed by a royal council of bishops at WestminsterDiceto i 306-7
2nd-3rd June 1162Ordained a priest on 2 June 1162. Consecrated as Archbishop 3rd June. CanterburyGervase i 170-1
10th August 1162Thomas Becket receives the envoy of Pope Alexander III who is bringing his pallium from Rome. Canterbury

Gervase i 172
25th December 1162Celebrates mass at St. Paul's LondonGervase i 172
25th January  1163At Southampton to greet king Henry II returning from France.Diceto i 308
February 1163Becket signatory to a charter issued at Oxford by the king.Eyton 58-9
8th March 1163Witness to a concord between the bishop of Lincoln and the abbot of St. Albans at Westminster.Lincoln Reg. Ann. i 65
17th March 1163Palm Sunday, King Henry II comes to Canterbury. [Next day] Becket and the king travel to Dover to meet the Count of Flanders.Gervase i 173
19th March 1163Present with king Henry II at meeting with  Count Thierry of Flanders, Dover.Foedera I.i. 23
March-April 1163WindsorFoliot Letters 185-6
CTB 7
6th April 1163WindsorFoliot Letters no. 34
May 1163At Romney to cross over to Flanders, en route to Tours.MTB iii 253
May 1163At Gravelines, Flanders en route to ToursMTB iii 253
May 16th-21st 1163Attends Council of Tours summoned by Pope Alexander III.MTB iii 254
1st July 1163Rows with king Henry II at Council of WoodstockEyton 63
1st October 1163Further rows with king Henry II at Council of WestminsterMTB iv 201
13th  October 1163At Westminster for the Translation of the Bones of St.King Edward the Confessor to his new tomb.Barlow Edward the Confessor (1970) 325

References

The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury
Volume 1 , The Chronicle of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Online ISBN:9781139343633
Paperback ISBN:9781108051590

Gervase of Canterbury; William Stubbs. The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-108-05159-0.

Gervase of Canterbury; William Stubbs (15 November 2012). The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury. Cambridge University Press. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-1-108-05159-0.



Volume 1 , The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto, Dean of London
Ralph de Diceto, Edited by William Stubbs
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Online ISBN:9781139226271
Paperback ISBN:9781108049337

Ralph de Diceto; William Stubbs. Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundoniensis Opera Historica -. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-108-04933-7.

Historiae Anglicanae Scriptores X : Simeon monachus. Radulphus de Diceto. typis Jacobi Flesher, sumptibus Cornelii Bee. 1652. pp. Col. 534.

C. W. Foster (July 2008). Registrum Antiquissimum of the Cathedral Church of Lincoln. Boydell & Brewer Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-901503-27-5.

Frank Barlow (1970). Edward the Confessor. Appendix E - Date of the First Translation: University of California Press. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-0-520-01671-2


Gilbert Foliot and His Letters. CUP Archive. pp. 184–

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). Anne J. Duggan, ed. The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 1-175. Volume 1. Letter CTB 7: Clarendon Press. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1.


Materials for the History of Thomas Becket,  Volume 3


Volume 3 contains the lives compiled by William Fitzstephen (pp 1-154) and Herbert of Bosham.(pp. 155-557)

Online Electronic Versions - Cambridge University Press


Rolls Series on Archive.org


Volume III. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6

Gallica BNF

Materials for the History of Thomas Becket,  Volume 4



Materials for the History of Thomas Becket,  Volume 5

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Volume V. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.



 

Monday, 18 January 2016

St Mary's Priory, Merton Surrey





A house of Augustinian Canons, was founded at Merton in 1114, by Gilbert, sheriff of Surrey on land granted to him by king Henry I.

The church of the priory was built right on top of the Roman road called Stane Street [which connected London with Chichester, and almost right next to a crossing over the river Wandle.

The priory was to be come a school. both Thomas Becket [born ca 1117] and Nicholas Brakespear [later Pope Adrian IV] were educated here during the 1120s.

The terms of the statute of Mertonwere agreed here between Henry III and the barons of England in 1235.

The monastery was dissolved under Henry VIII. The stones of the abbey were used in the construction of nearby Nonesuch Palace.

References

David Charles Douglas . English Historical Documents, 1042-1189. Volume 2 - #42 writ of Henry I to Gilbert, sheriff of Surrey: Psychology Press. pp. 473–. ISBN 978-0-415-14367-7.

Merton Historical Society- Topics - The Records of Merton Priory

The records of Merton priory in the county of Surrey by Major Alfred Heales

Merton Historical Society- Topics - MERTON PRIORY

Merton Priory and model

Remains of the Chapter House found here
Merantun Way - Google Maps
Found under Meratum Way [A24]





Pat Miller; David Saxby (2007). The Augustinian Priory of St Mary Merton, Surrey: Excavations 1976-90. Museum of London Archaeology Service. ISBN 978-1-901992-70-0.


John Richardson (2000). The Annals of London: A Year-by-year Record of a Thousand Years of History. University of California Press. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-520-22795-8.

Merton in Domesday Book

Edward Wedlake Brayley; Mantell (1850). A topographical history of Surrey: the geological section by Gedeon Mantell. Meretone: G. Willis. pp. 456–.

The Influence of Merton Priory: As Revealed by the 'Merton Priory Manuscripts'. 2014.

Daniel Lysons, 'Merton', in The Environs of London: Volume 1, County of Surrey (London, 1792), pp. 338-349 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-environs/vol1/pp338-349


Rule of St. Augustine


Besse, J. (1907). Rule of Saint Augustine. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02079b.htm

Application World Heritage status


Augustinian Canons


When, in and after the 11th century, the various congregations of Canons Regular were formed, and adopted the Rule of St. Augustine, they were usually called Canonici Regulares Ordinis S. Augustini Congregationis, and in England "Austin Canons" or "Black Canons",





Colker, Marvin L. (1969). The Life of Guy of Merton by Rainald of Merton. Mediaeval Studies 31 (1):250-261.


Wednesday, 13 January 2016

Mission of Richard, prior of Dover to the Young King, Dec 1170

Several days after his return, eight days after he had arrived at Canterbury, Becket who wished to pay a visit to the court of the young King, sent ahead Richard, the prior of St. Martin's Dover (a dependency of Christchurch, Canterbury). On his arrival at Winchester, Richard found the King in council with his advisers and guardians [tutores: William de St John, William fitz Audelin, Hugh de Gundeville and Ranulf fitz Stephen] together with a council of nobles, and some bishops [but specifically excluding those of Worcester, Winchester, Exeter and Norwich (or Ely)] together with a number of abbots and archdeacons [in particular those of Canterbury (Geoffrey Ridell) and Poitiers (Richard of Ilchester). They were discussing in a highly uncanonical manner a scheme to fill the six vacant bishops' sees. They were to select six candidates to be sent on their way from Southampton to cross over the channel to see King Henry II at Bur-le-Roi, where he was staying over Christmas period in1170. There the elder King Henry would have them confirmed in their appointment.

This was a scheme designed rapidly to pre-empt Becket now he had returned to the kingdom from interfering and having any involvement in the selection and appointment process of filling the vacant sees. All the new bishops had to be partisan towards King Henry. Canon 13 of the 4th Council of Carthage (419 AD) was cited as a precedent and legal justification for this action.  But this process also contradicted another church canon, the 4th Canon of the First Council of Nicaea (325 AD), where, it was decreed that the right of confirmation of a new bishop should belong to the metropolitan bishop of the province.

Prior Richard's mission did not succeed. Becket was denied access to the Young King. Two knights were sent to meet him as he was making his way towards Woodstock where the Young King had now relocated himself to. The knights told Becket he was not welcome and ordered him to rerun to Canterbury, denying him the right to travel all over the kingdom.

Story according to William of Canterbury

An Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, the Archbishop of Canterbury
by William, a Monk of Canterbury; trans. Mary Annette Bocke (1946)
Loyola University Chicago Book 2 Sections 11-16 p.45-58
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1056&context=luc_theses

Story according to Garnier

Translation of
Stanzas 954-990 Lines 4766-4950


Filling Vacant Bishoprics

954 Soon after his return from over the sea [from exile in France], he [Thomas Becket] determined he would not demure for long in his see without having gone to speak with the king of the land; so he sent before him a message by means of a monk, Richard, governor of the church at Dover.

955 The Young King was found at Winchester. There assembled were the barons of the land, deans, archdeacons, parsons and abbots  They were there on the counsel of the three bishops who had been severed from communion with the people [excommunicated/suspended, namely the bishops of London and Salisbury, and the archbishop of York],and  Geoffrey, the married one [Geoffrey Ridel, archdeacon (archdiabolus) of Canterbury who was later appointed bishop of Ely, but who also had to renounce his marriage before he could take up his post] .

956 There were six churches [bishoprics] in the kingdom which were without a pastor [bishop]. That is why these people, namely the prince, the earls, and many barons, were assembled that day [at Winchester] to select and appoint pastors to these honours. Those whom they selected had to cross over the sea [to the king] without delay.

957 There the parsons must be both elected and given [their posts] on the counsel of the four you've heard me number before. Neither did they wanted to summon archbishop, nor the several bishops of whom I have no wish to hide, those whom they knew were loyal [to Becket].

958 They had not wanted to have amongst them the Bishop of Winchester, nor Master Bartholomew of Exeter, nor the gentle and good Roger of Worcester, neither the bishop of Ely, who did not wish to be there. No one ought to extend his right hand to such a consecration.

959 Nowhere can bishops be ordained in thus manner. It is necessary to assemble as many of  bishops as possible. If necessary, three bishops can confer the consecration, but the bishop cannot be elevated to his office without the consent of the primate [metropolitan]. Thus stateth the Canonical decree.

960 And if a bishop is to be ordained in the land, it is necessary to summon all the bishops of the kingdom; those who cannot attend this assembly may send messengers with letters. Thus may it be known whether they approve of the consecration.

961 If a bishop or priest has been chosen and raised to his diocese by a prince, he is to be degraded. Anyone who has exercised secular authority and has purchased his divine office let him be wholly deposed and denied communion with the faithful.

962 I cannot see, neither cleric nor lay person, holding to the law of this decree, those who have been thus ordained, for they fear they may lose their offices. In thus manner they submit completely to the secular power, They bend before the wind wherever it comes from hoping for fairer weather.

963 They are not sons of Jesus: they are all degenerate. This year they will not let themselves be crucified for God!  They are utterly loathed to lose what they have embraced. They are not born of heaven; their gaze is not in that direction. They are baked from earth and it is towards earth they bow.

964 A bishop should put the world on the straight path: he must be a good men and good cleric, born of a woman in wedlock. A good cutting grafted onto the right rootstock will bear good fruit; and I see that a good cutting grafted onto poor rootstock will bear bad fruit: Cultivate a bad tree, bad will be the quality of its fruit [as ye sow, so shall ye reap].

965  Devils blind princes and kings! Whosoever has had a bad father poor is his heritage. He who has a weak chief will often be scourged. When the son does this to the father, order is overturned. The heavens are under the ground and  the stars are no longer visible. 

966  When the king appoints a pastor [bishop] , he ought to see to it to find one who can command his body and soul. And depending on the extent to he does this he decides to reverse this then it is as if pure emerald were to be set in lead: no one else can judge him but himself for this act.

967 One must give to Holy Church such a pastor whom we can submit to with honour. Holy Church is the wife of the sovereign Master; if He has taken a bride who is a bad steward, God is dishonoured by such a marriage.

968 The archbishop's messenger of Thomas thus came to Winchester, but found that the chamber was heavily guarded and barred against him. That was because both the clergy and laity feared that he was bearing letters which were not salutations but contained suspensions for some of them.

969 The messenger strongly pointed out saying that he brought no such malevolent mandate: but that the primate much loved the King and his people. Thus he gained access into the Young King's presence, where he bowed to him, and speaking humbly, he said:

970 "Thomas, the archbishop of Canterbury, legate of the Holy See of Rome and primate of the whole empire, greets King Henry, who is lord of England. Sire, you have heard enough said by others, wherefore that is why yet I am writing this letter to you.


971 "So that you may learn from me too, when your father was angry against me, that the good God has, by His grace, made peace between us and bound us in concord, harmony and love. But many have been infuriated by this.

972 And want me to quarrel with you, and have a evil intent, and want to undo and make disappear the love and peace: they say that I want to take away the crown from you! But not so! so help me God, whom we must serve, God who may grant me to be blessed with heavenly joy

973 How many kingdoms I would like you to have besides those which you already have,  I would have conquered them for you with my own flesh, and spill a part of my blood, but not if I become accused before God, so may the Holy Trinity help me at the end.

974 So how is it that I seek to do you harm or to dishonour you, whom I behold as and must do [for you] as king and lord, heir and successor to the kingdom, whom I love above all men in faith and with affection except my lord the king, who placed me in this [position of] honour?

975 "However, [I must tell you of] of how much bitterness there is in my heart for not having placed the crown of gold upon your head, according to the privilege of our mother church. Therefore, by my letter, I beg your bounty to let me speak to you about this and other matters."

976 Well did Richard deliver this message. But his advisers counselled the young king not to speak at this time to the archbishop .And master Geoffrey Ridel said to him and swore that the old king had spoken from the heart to him about this:

977 That he did not want his son to talk to this man, who, if he could, would deprive him of the inheritance of his kingdom, and who would take away and remove the crown from his head. The young king then sent to the archbishop two knights: one among that number was Thomas de Tournebu.

[I am of the opinion that the King did not have any right to deny access into the presence of the King in Council by the archbishop of Canterbury, as the archbishop was legally a baron and in order of precedence, the second person in the kingdom. On this occasion when the Young King was discussing who would be candidates to fill the vacant bishops'sees, the archbishop should have been present.]

978 And Joscelin came to him on behalf of the king. He forbade the Archbishop to enter any of the King's refuges: vills, boroughs and castles -woe unto him if he is seen in any of them! The archbishop had already reached London in order to speak to the king; he had alighted at Southwark.

[The two knights were Joscelin of Leuven, younger brother of Adeliza, Queen of Henry I, together with a knight called Thomas of Turnebuke]

979 "What!" said St. Thomas, "do you defy me?" - "Not at all," said Jocelin, "but you are ordered to do this by the King, because you have acted very badly towards him: you want to overthrow the laws and customs of his kingdom, and take away the crown from the Young King,

980 "You pass through his country with armed knights, you bring with you clerics from foreign lands and countries, and you have cut off prelates from their ministries. Henry now wants you to absolve them because in this as in other matters, you did greatly insult him."

[The knights are almost accusing Becket of lèse-majesté.]

981 Then the valiant one could no longer remain silent, and answered, "that is not right," he said to him " I have never seen it before laid down that what has been done by a person of higher rank may be undone by one of lesser rank; because that which has been actually done, and fully confirmed by Pope may not be legitimately undone by one of lesser authority."

982 These madmen replied in one voice.: "If you do not submit to that which the King has commanded, he will exert his right, and you will punished for it dearly!"  All this advice had been provided and drawn up by the three prelates who had been cut off from their ministries.

983 Then the noble one replied calmly to them saying that if the bishop of London and of Salisbury wished to come to him and swear to hold to the law of Holy Church and keep the peace, he was ready and willing to take up and bear the heavy responsibility of doing this,

984 And of the King's council, if he was willing, and with the advice of Roger of Worcester and the other bishops whom he had to consult, he would negotiate with humility [on their behalf] with the Apostolic honour [his holiness the Pope], and they would be very dear to him.

985 Joscelin then said, "since you persist in not wanting to absolve the King's prelates, the King has prohibited you access to his boroughs and cities, vills, and castles: woe unto you if you enter them! Go perform your ministry at Canterbury!

986 "How can I advise and monitor the churches and parishes, " said the saint, "if I cannot travel around to my flock? I cannot honourably perform my ministry." Having listened to such words the good man well understood that he must hastily come to his end as a martyr.

987 Bidding à Dieu, which is salvation to the righteous, he then turned back toward London and the City, where he made a halt, Many a miracle was performed by God at the place where he alighted, for the blind, cripples, the deaf, mute and lepers, who received both health and strength.

988 Bidding à Dieu to God he made his return. He set out along the road, thus the best one made his way. He confirmed children in the vills and boroughs, dismounting from his horse wherever they were brought to him. In no way did it seem painful to him to serve God:

989 Thus God was served willingly. There is no need to highlight all the places where he stopped to confirm children: you just have to find the chapels that have been built there. There God gives sight to the blind, hearing to the deaf, makes the dumb to speak, and the lepers are cleansed; the dead are revived to walk again.


990 Thus St. Thomas returned to his see, where he remained in his archbishopric for the rest of his life. Whenever he saw the poor, he took pity, working to serve God night and day. Well he knew he faced martyrdom. He had foretold this.

Story according to Herbert of Boseham

An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas. Becket--Books 5-7.
Herbert of Bosham
trans Irene T. Pearse. (1944)
Loyola University Chicago.
pp. 26-

 
FitzStephen

Michael Staunton (2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. 45. Thomas is Prevented from Visiting the young King: Manchester University Press. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6.

Sinclair, Mary Aelred, "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket By William Fitzstephen: (Part Two)" (1944). Master's Theses.Paper 369
.http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_theses/369 p.62-7
And as translated and edited by George Greenaway in The Life of Thomas Becket. Chancellor and Archbishop (London, Folio Society, 1961). p.

He stayed for a day and a night as the guest of the aforesaid Henry, bishop of Winchester. On the morrow Jocelyn of Arundel, the queen's brother, came to him with a message from the young king to the effect that he would not be permitted to visit him or to enter the cities and casdes of the realm. Let him rather return to Canterbury and remain in his see and not depart from it. At this the archbishop was dumbfounded. Realizing that such orders did not convey the true mind of the young king, he asked Jocelyn whether the king had signified his intention to remove him from his confidence and companionship. The envoy curdy replied, ' I have given you your orders'. Arrogantly taking his leave, he chanced to meet a certain citizen of London, a rich man and well known to him, to whom he said, 'Have you too come to join the king's enemy ? I advise you to return with all speed'. The man answered, 'Whether you hold him to be the king's enemy, I know not; but we have seen and heard read the letters from the king overseas dealing with the archbishop's peace and restoration.If something else lies behind them, we know naught of it'. These were prophetic signs of evil to come.


See also





References

An Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, the Archbishop of Canterbury
by William, a Monk of Canterbury; trans. Mary Annette Bocke (1946)

Loyola University Chicago p.45-

John Horace Round (17 June 2010). Feudal England: Historical Studies on the XIth and XIIth Centuries. Cambridge University Press. pp. 506–. ISBN 978-1-108-01449-6.

Antonio Mira de Amescua; Olin Harris Moore; William Samuel Hendrix (1925). The Young King, Henry Plantagenet (1155-1183): In History, Literature and Tradition. Ohio State University.

Charles Duggan, ‘Richard (d. 1184)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/23514

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 230–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.


Materials for the history of Thomas Becket by William, of Canterbury. Vol 1 p. 115

An Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, the Archbishop of Canterbury
by William, a Monk of Canterbury; trans. Mary Annette Bocke (1946)
Loyola University Chicago Book 2 Sections 11-16 p.45-58

James Craigie Robertson.Rolls Series 67  Materials for the History of Thomas Becket. Volume 1 Willelmus Cantuariensi Liber secundus - Sections 11-16 : Cambridge University Press. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-1-108-04925-2.






Canons on the Election of Bishops

Gratianus Pars Prima Distinctio LXIV Causa II
Catholic Church; Aemilius Ludwig Richter; Emil Friedberg (1879). Corpus Iuris Canonici: Editio Lipsiensis Secunda - Post Aemilii Ludouici Richteri [1879]. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-1-58477-088-6.

Szabolcs Anzelm Szuromi (6 October 2014). Pre-Gratian Medieval Canonical Collections: Texts, Manuscripts, Concepts. Frank & Timme GmbH. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-3-7329-0108-1.


Ordinationes episcoporum auctoritate apostolica ab omnibus, qui in eadem prouincia sunt, episcopis celebrandae sunt.

Ordination of a Bishop from the authority of an apostle for all those who are in the same province, the Bishops are to be celebrated §. 1. And if you all could have little to convene at the same time, that the assent, however, may offer their prayers, so that from the very ordering of the soul are not absent.

By the 4th Canon of the First Council of Nicaea (325 AD), however, it was decreed that the right of confirmation should belong to the metropolitan bishop of each province, a rule confirmed by the 12th Canon of the Council of Laodicaea.   The canonical right of the metropolitan to confirm the election of his suffragans was still affirmed by Gratian.

Robert W. Shaffern (2009). Law and Justice from Antiquity to Enlightenment. On the Canonical Election of Bishops: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-1-4616-3871-1.


Gratianus Pars Prima Distinctio LXV CausaV
C. V. Non ordinetur episcopus extra conscientiam metropolitani.
Item Innocentius. [Papa ad Victricium Episcopum Rothomagensem epist. II. c. I.]
Extra conscientiam metropolitani nullus audeat ordinare episcopum. Integrum enim est iudicium, quod plurimorum sentenciis confirmatur. Nec unus episcopus presumat ordinare episcopum, ne furtivum beneficium prestitum videatur. Hoc enim et sinodus Nycena constituit atque constituendo diffinivit.

A bishop should not be ordained without the complicity of the metropolitan. The whole is confirmed, such is justice, by the vote of the many.

Catholic Church; Aemilius Ludwig Richter; Emil Friedberg (1879). Corpus Iuris Canonici: Editio Lipsiensis Secunda - Post Aemilii Ludouici Richteri [1879]. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-1-58477-088-6.

Charles Reginald Haines (2013). Dover Priory: A History of the Priory of St Mary the Virgin, and St Martin of the New Work. Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-1-107-62324-8


Charles Duggan, ‘Richard (d. 1184)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/23514



William Fitz Adeline

Ralph Fitz Stephen
James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. pp. 259–.

John Morris; Saint Thomas (à Becket) (1859). The Life and Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, Etc. pp. 305–.

William Urry (1999). Thomas Becket: His Last Days. Sutton. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-0-7509-2179-4.

GEORGE LORD LYTTELTON (1769). THE HISTORY OF THE LIFE OF KING HENRY THE SECOND. pp. 351–.

4th Council of Carthage 419 AD.

Source. Translated by Henry Percival. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 14. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1900.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3816.htm

Canon 13. That a bishop should not be ordained except by many bishops, but if there should be necessity he may be ordained by three
Bishop Aurelius said: What says your holiness on this matter? By all the bishops it was answered: The decrees of the ancients must be observed by us, to wit, that without the consent of the Primate of any province even many bishops assembled together should not lightly presume to ordain a bishop. But should there be a necessity, at his bidding, three bishops should ordain him in any place they happen to be, and if anyone contrary to his profession and subscription shall come into any place he shall thereby deprive himself of his honour.

Robert William Eyton (1878). Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II. Taylor and Company. p 152.




Geoffrey Ridell held Otford by force

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 176-329. CTB 326 Thomas Becket to Pope Alexander III: Clarendon Press. pp. 1345–. ISBN 978-0-19-820893-8.




An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas. Becket--Books 5-7.
Herbert of Bosham
trans Irene T. Pearse. (1944)
Loyola University Chicago.
pp. 26-



Christopher Harper-Bill; Nicholas Vincent (2007). Henry II: New Interpretations. Matthew Strickland - On the Instruction of a Prince: Boydell Press. pp. 184–. ISBN 978-1-84383-340-6.

Strickland, M.. (2007). On the Instruction of a Prince: The Upbringing of Henry, the Young King. In C. Harper-Bill & N. Vincent (Eds.), Henry II: New Interpretations (pp. 184–214). Boydell & Brewer. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt81tqd.13

A Glimpse of the Young King's Court pp. 506-7

Stanzas 954-990 Lines 4766-4950
Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Janet Shirley (1975). Garnier's Becket: translated from the 12th-century Vie saint Thomas le martyr de Cantorbire of Garnier of Pont-Sainte-Maxence. Phillimore. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-0-85033-200-1.

Chapter LXXV How Archbishop Thomas was minded to go to the Young King
 
Ridel, Geoffrey (d. 1189), administrator and later, bishop of Ely
In December he persuaded the Young King not to receive the archbishop, with the message, ‘I know your father's wishes; and never will I be a party to admitting into your presence a man who purposes to disinherit you’ (ibid., 1.111)