Thursday, 28 September 2017

Garnier: Obtaining the Pallium


120 Mes l’abé d’Evesham aveit dunkes mandé, 
Dan Adam de Saint Liz, prudume e renumé ; 
Ke pur sun palle alast li aveit comandé.
Dui bon clerc e uns moines i sunt od li alé,
600 E pape Alisandre unt a Munpelier trové.

121
Bon clerc furent des arz, de decré e de lei.
Sa peticiun fist des treis chescon par sei,
E mult parlerent bien e clergilment tut trei.
E Alisandre pape les oï bien, ceo crei,
605 Mes il ne lur fist pas del palliun l’otrei.

122
Il en sunt plusurs feiz as cardunals alé.
Li cardunal lur unt mainte feiz demandé
K’il orent l’apostoile e a els aporté ;
K’il esteient de Rome chacié e debuté,
610 N’aveient de lur rentes un denier muneé.

123
Li messagier lur unt tut adès respundu
K’il de luntein païs esteient la venu ;
Ceo qu’orent aporté, orent pres despendu.
Le palle requereient saintement e a nu ;
615 Ja pur simonials n’en sereient tenu.

124
Unc ne porent plus prendre pur tut lur demander.
Mes quant li abes vit k’il ot liu de parler,
E vit les cardunals entur la pape ester,
Sa requeste mult bel cumença a mustrer ;
620 Mes n’i volt mot de lei ne de decré soner.

125
« Sire, fet il, ceo dit Deus, ki est veritez
(Par tut le deveiz fere, quant el liu Deu seez) :
“ Demandez justement, fet Deus, e vus l’avrez ;
Querez le seintement, e vus le troverez ;
625 Li uis vus ert overz, s’al verrai us butez ”.

126
Mult sumes travaillié e mult de luinz venum.
Ceo que volum aver saintement demandum ;
Ici devom trover ceo que nus requerum.
Vus nus overeiz l’us ; dignement i butum.
630 Vus estes el liu Deu, Deu en vos troverum. »

127
Dunc li dist l’apostoille, quant il ot parfiné :
« Frater, tu prendras ci ceo que as demandé.
Tu l’as quis justement, e tu l’avras trové ;
Nus t’overum mes l’uis, car tu i as buté. »
635 Dunc aveit hum avant le palliun porté.

128
Le palliun lur a l’apostoile chargié,
E il s’en sunt od tut ariere repairié.
Einsi i vint Thomas senz dun e senz pechié ;
N’i ad pur ceo denier ne or n’argent baillié.

640 Essample i deivent prendre li successur del sié

Translation

120 The abbot of Evesham was then summoned [by Becket], Father Adam de Saint Luz [Senlis], shrewd and well-known. Thomas commanded him to go fetch his pallium [from the Roman Curia]. Two good clerics and a monk went with him [the abbot], and they found Pope Alexander at Montpellier. 600

121 The clerics were well-versed in the art of rhetoric, and the decretals [canon law], and the [civil] law. Each of the three delivered his petition by himself [before the Pope]. And they spoke very well and learnedly all three. And Pope Alexander listened to them well, this I believe, but he did not grant permission for the pallium [to be given] to them. 605

122 ;And] they went many times to the cardinals. The cardinals demanded to know from them a great number of times what they had brought with them for the Pope and themselves, [saying] that they [the cardinals] had been chased out of Rome and had run away from it without any of their incomes, penniless. 610

123 The messengers always replied to their demands that they had come from a distant country; that whatever they had brought they had already spent. The pallium which they sought holily and without conditions, never would they handle it simoniacally. 615

124 In spite of all their demands, they obtained nothing more. But when the abbot saw an opportunity to speak, the cardinals being gathered around the Pope, he began to put forward his request well without, however, mentioning a word about the decretals: 620

125 "My Lord," he said "this is what God who is Truth says, (which you must affirm, as it is in God's place which you sit.):
'Ask justly', says God, 'and you will receive it; seek piously and you will find it; the door will be opened for you, if you knock on the true door.' 625

126 "We are very tired and have come a long way. That which we wish to have we ask for piously for it is here we must seek for that which we require. You will open the door for it for we have knocked [upon it] with dignity. You occupy the place of God; we shall find God in you." 630

127 Then the Pope said to him, when he had finished, "Frater [Brother], thou wilt take from here that which thou hast asked for; thou hast sought for it justly, and thou wilt find it; We will open our door to thee, because thou hast knocked upon it." He then had the pallium brought before him. 635

128 They were given charge of the pallium by the Pope, and they all returned home with it. Thus it came to Thomas without gift and without sin; for neither had he handed over either money, or gold, or silver for it, an example which his successors to the see [of Canterbury] may well seek to follow. 640

References

Luke 11:9-10 ' 9 And I say to you, Ask, and it shall be given you: seek, and you shall find: knock, and it shall be opened to you. 10 For every one that asketh, receiveth; and he that seeketh, findeth; and to him that knocketh, it shall be opened. ' 


Adam de Senlis = Adam of Bermondsey, made abbot 1161

Julie Kerr (2007). Monastic Hospitality: The Benedictines in England, C.1070-c.1250. Boydell Press. pp. 234–. ISBN 978-1-84383-326-0.

Monday, 25 September 2017

Garnier: Election to the Archepiscopacy

Extract from

http://txm.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/bfm/pdf/becket.pdf
La vie de Saint Thomas le martyr. Edited by E. Walberg pp. 16-19

80
Mes quant li arceveskes Tedbalt fu devïez,
Al chancelier, qui si esteit del rei privez,
Greantée fu dunc del rei la dignetez.
Car el regne ne sot nul clerc de ses buntez,
400 E quida k’il sewist par tut ses volentez.

81
En Normendie esteit idunc li reis Henris,
E Thomas altresi, qui quereit los e pris.
Les meilurs chevaliers tint od sei del païs,
E guerrea le rei de France, Loëwis.
405 De bien servir le rei s’esteit mult entremis.

82
En tut le regne n’ot ne si halt ne si fier
Kil poüst, s’il volsist, bien nuirë u aidier.
Ki que venist al rei, de quei qu’oüst mestier,
Errament l’enveast ariere al chancelier.
410 Quanqu’il fist e desfist, tut voleit ostreier.

83
E trestute Engletere e tute Normendie,
Altres teres asez, aveit en sa baillie.
E quanque il feseit ne desplot al rei mie.
Od sei meneit adès mult grant chevalerie ;
415 Al rei fist de sa guere mult suvent grant aïe.

84
En la terre n’aveit plus large viandier.
Adès vindrent a lui baron e chevalier,
Puteins e lecheür, a beivre e a mangier.
Ses ostels fist suvent l’ostel le rei voidier,
420 Tant que li reis se prist vers lui a curecier.

85
Quant fu arcediacnes, provoz e chanceliers,
Vedves e orphanins e povres aveit chiers ;
Mes asise n’en sot serganz ne almoners,
Mes tut adès les pot, e fist bien volentiers.
425 E cum plus fu halz jorz, tant lur fu plus pleniers.

86
En Engletere l’a li reis dunc enveié.
De tutes ses bosoignes li a le fes chargié.
E il l’en aveit mult a cel’ure avancié ;
Car il le cunut bien des le chief tresqu’al pié,
430 E par tut se voleit tenir a s’amistié.

87
Dunc enveia li reis a Seinte Ternité
Treis eveskes, ki sorent mult de sa volenté,
E Ricard de Luci, un baron mult sené.
Dunc sunt od le covent dedenz capitre entré ;
435 E Ricard de Luci ad pur els tuz parlé.

88
« Li reis Henris, fet il, que tenum a segnur,
Al covent ad mandé par nus, e al priur :
Ceste iglise a esté lungement senz pastur ;
Or volt li reis qu’aiez pere e guverneür ;
440 Mes a vostre pru volt k’il seit, e a s’onur.

89
– E Deus nus doinst, funt il, pastur a sun plaisir,
Ki puisse seint’iglise e nus bien maintenir.
Beneïz seit li reis, k’il le nus volt suffrir,
Ke nus poum pastur a l’iglise choisir.
445 – Voz dreiz, funt li eveskes, ne vus volt il tolir.

90
Mes or vus covendreit mult bon conseil aveir,
Ke vus eslisez tel ki vus puisse valeir
Par tut envers le rei ; car bien poëz saveir,
Se vus eslisez nul encontre sun voleir,
450 Vostre iglise en purra en grant perte chaeir.

91
Kar pes ne s’amistié a nul jor n’avrïez
En cisme e en discorde tutzdis mes serïez ;
Ne vus n’avez mestier k’il seit vers vus iriez.
Mes s’un k’il mult amast eslire purïez,
455 De tutes voz bosignes el desus serïez. »

92
Dunc en unt li covenz a lur conseil parlé.
L’eveske de Cicestre unt a els apelé,
E celui d’Execestre n’en unt il pas sevré,
E Ricard, ki tint d’els e fiu e herité,
460 K’il conseillent l’iglise de Seinte Ternité.

93
A lur dreit escïent lur unt le mielz loé.
Or unt tant le conseil e estreit e mené
K’a ceo s’asentent tuit, li juefne e li sené,
Ke Thomas eslirrunt a cele dignité.
465 A cel conseil se sunt li baron acordé.

94
Bien quident que li reis s’i voldra assentir ;
Ne plus oneste clerc n’i purreit nuls choisir,
Ne nul ki mielz poüst lur iglise avancir,
Ne ki mielz fust del rei ; e s’il funt sun plaisir
470 Mult en purra grant pru a l’iglise avenir.

95
Or unt li moine einsi fermement greanté.
E li baron s’en vont a Lundres la cité.
Tut le barnage i unt del païs asemblé ;
Plenierement i furent eveskë e abé,
475 E li priurs i fu de Seinte Ternité.

96
La unt eslit Thomas e pris a avoé
Tut senz nul contredit de lai u de letré,
Fors de celui de Lundres, kin aveit guernoné :
Car de seint’iglise ad persecuturs esté,
480 Ceo dit ; a mult grant tort avreit la digneté.

97
Il meïsmes l’aveit cuntr’els tuz contredit :
N’est pas dignes, ceo dit, d’aveir si halt abit ;
Destruit ad seint’iglise, sa lei mis en despit,
E adès parsewi ; a tort l’i unt eslit.
485 Od lermes en requiert e delai e respit.

98
« Fiz, si seras, ceo dit l’eweske de Wincestre ;
Si purvers as esté el servise terestre,
Mielz e plus volentiers serf le seignur celestre.
Tu fus lus as ueiles ; or seies pastre e prestre.
490 De Saul persecutur Pols seras e deiz estre. »

99
Dunc l’unt a arceveske a grant joie levé,
Quant tut li clergiez l’a eslit e apelé.
Li reis aveit purquant as justises mandé
E al clergié par brief, – mes ne l’unt pas mustré, –
495 K’en respit le mesissent ; pur ceo se sunt hasté.

100
Ne sai pur quei li reis s’en volt si tost retraire.
Bien entendi, ceo crei, tut changot sun afaire ;
Ne mes sa volenté ne purreit de li faire,
Ne les dreiz seint’iglise ne lerreit pas detraire.
500 Mes tut ceo que Deus volt ne pot nuls hom desfaire.

101
U pur ceo que li reis vit bien e entendi
K’il l’aveit lealment e par tut bien servi,
Ne trovereit ja mes kil servist altresi,
Or li pesot k’il ot sun servise guerpi.
505 Mes il fu presenté al fiz le rei Henri.

102
Li reis li aveit ja le realme duné,
Ke qu’avenist de lui, k’il fust a seürté.
Les humages ot pris de tuz e feelté.
Par sun brief ot li reis as justises mandé
510 Que quanqu’il en fereient il lur ot greanté.

103
Presenté unt pur ceo l’enfant l’electiun,
E a ces qui li reis en aveit fet le dun.
Assens i unt duné e lur cumfermeisun.
L’eveske de Wincestre, ki mult sot de raisun,
515 Ne voleit k’il en fussent pris a nul’achaison.

104
L’emfant e les barons aveit araisonez.
« Seignur, fet il, a mei un petit m’entendez.
Cist a esté baillius le rei e ses privez,
E nus l’avom eslit, e vus le greantez ;
520 Or volum que del tut quite le nus clamez.

105
Del païs a esté e baillius e justise ;
Les rentes le rei ot tutes a sun servise.
D’acuntes, de tut el, de tute sergantise
E quite e franc del tut le demande s’iglise,
525 Ke qu’avienge en avant, ne seit em perte mise. »

106
Les justises le rei, ki il ot comandé
Ke quanqu’il en fereient par li ert cumfermé,
E sis filz ensement, l’en unt quite clamé
D’acuntes, de tut el, e al clergié livré.
530 Dunc l’unt a arceveske a grant joie levé.

107
N’i ot gueres de tens après ceo trespassé
K’a Cantorbire l’unt a grant joie mené
E a mult grant honur receü e sacré.
Mes n’a pas erranment sun abit remué :
535 Par l’abit volt covrir ceo qu’al cuer ot planté.

108
E li seignur en unt suvent entr’els grucié,
K’il entrot enz el quer, sa cote par sun pié ;
Ne sorent qu’en sun cuer ot Deus edifïé.
Uns ki privé li fu l’en aveit chastïé ;
540 Un sunge li conta k’uns moines ot sungié.

109
Deus s’aparut al moine e dist lui en dormant :
« Va tost al chancelier ; di li que jeo li mant
Prenge abit monial, ne voist mie targant.
E s’il nel fet, tut dis l’irai contraliant,
545 E mal li avendra adès a sun vivant. »

110
Quant l’arceveske l’ot, un ris li ad jeté.
Partie li mustra de ceo qu’out en pensé ;
Mes a Deu sulement ad sun cuer demustré,
Ki l’ot, ainz k’il fust nez, eslit e apelé.
550 Car tut ert ja changié de tel cum ot esté.

111
E si tost cum il ot la dignité emprise,
Les mals murs a guerpi e seculer servise.
Reddement guverna e clers e saint’iglise,
Tint preste de ferir l’espee de justise ;
555 Nel lessa pur poür ne pur grant coveitise.

112
Tut ceo que dut amer bien maintint e ama,
E ceo que dut haïr guerpi e esluingna ;
Al servise le rei cuntre Deu n’aprisma.
Les povres revesti e pot e guverna ;
560 De Damnedeu servir, quanque pot, se pena.

113
Li moine li diseient : quant il esteit lur mestre
E lur dux e lur pere, lur abes deveit estre ;
Quant ert abes, l’abit en dut aveir e l’estre.
A ceo qu’ert apelé, a ceo deveit renestre,
565 E la divine honurs refuse abit terestre.

114
Ne voleient suffrir li reguler chanoine
K’arceveskes n’eveskes oüst abit de moine.
A moine est, cume a mort, donee neire bruine,
Ne lur robe n’est pas a nul prelat aoine.
570 Cil unt de lur raisun asez grant testimoine.

115
Li clerc ki od lui erent li rediseient al :
Ke s’oüst esté moines e fust en cel estal,
Guerpireit il la vie e l’ordre monial.
Quant od les clers comverse, robe avra cumunal ;
575 Ne tendra cume moines poesté eveskal.

116
Par tels raisuns esteit de treis parz anguissiez.
Mes a un mult prudume s’en esteit cunseilliez,
Priur de Kenilwrdhe ; cil li ad dras tailliez.
Les regulers a pris, les seculers laissiez ;
580 Chanoine fu defors, mes dedenz fu chargiez.

117
Trop grant religiun ne volt defors mustrer,
Mes les dous ordres volt en un sul cors porter :
La cule ot suz les dras, – cel ordre volt celer, –
Mes de pans e de manches l’aveit fait escurter ;
585 La haire ot a la char pur sun cors plus grever.

118
Ne volt le muniage k’il nel preïst laissier,
U pur la visiun que Deus li fist nuncier,
U pur ceo que nul d’els ne pot unkes frugier
Ki seculer volsist cel’honur embracier.
590 Car dous en i fist Deus malement trebuchier :

119
Stigant fist l’apostoiles de sun sié deposer,
En prisun e en chartre de mesaise finer.
Es munz de Mungiu fist Deus Elfsi devïer ;
Sa jument fist ovrir e ses piez enz geter :
595 De freit murut en l’iwe, ainc n’i pot eschalfer.

Provisional Translation

80
After the death of Archbishop Theobald, the king conferred his office upon the chancellor who was in his confidence. In the kingdom, indeed, he knew no cleric of his prowess, and he believed that he would follow his wishes in every matter. 400

81
King Henry was at that time in Normandy, as was Thomas, who was seeking renown and honour. He [Thomas] had with him in his company the best knights in the country, making war upon the King Louis of France. Well was he engaged in the service of the king. 405
82
In the whole kingdom there was none so high nor so proud who could if he wanted to could so well harm or help him. Whoever came [to see] the king whatever his business would immediately be sent back to see the chancellor. Whatsoever he did or did not do, in everything the king gave his consent. 410

83
And everywhere throughout England and the whole of Normandy, and other lands as well, was under his stewardship. And none of what he did displeased the king at all. He was always accompanied by a large troop of horsemen, and his actions in the king's wars these were often of a very great assistance to the latter. 415.


84
There was no greater host in the land; barons and knights, whores and lechers always came to drink and eat with him.. [Thomas'] hospitality often left the king's hall empty [of guests], so much so that the king became angry towards him. 420

85
When he was archdeacon, provost and chancellor. he was much beloved by widows, orphans and the poor; but neither did his servants nor his almoners [always] know how to find seats [at his table] for them, but he always managed to do so, and well did he do so willingly. And on the high days [of important religious festivity] he was even more sumptious towards them. 425



86
He [Thomas] was then sent by the king to England charged with the duty of carrying out all his [the king's] official business there.and he did further it for him considerably at this time, as he knew him [the king] well, all the way from the top of his head down to his toes, and above all he wanted to retain his [the king's] friendship.

87
The king therefore sent to the cathedral priory of the Holy Trinity [at Canterbury] three bishops, who were fully aware of his intentions, as well as a very wise lord, Richard de Lucy. They entered the monastery and Richard de Lucy spoke to the chapter [assembly] on behalf of them all..

88
<<King Henry,>> said he, <<whom we hold to be our sovereign lord, through us, sends an official message to the convent and its prior: this church has long been without a pastor: now the king wants you to have a father and a governor, but he wants that this should be done for your benefit, as well as in accordance with his honourable [position].>>

89
<<And God gives us,>> said they, "a pastor of His pleasing, one who can both defend Holy Church, as well as protect us well. Blessed is the king who allows us to choose a pastor for the Church.>>
<<He does not want>> said the bishops, <<to take away from you your rights.>>

90
>>But now he has assembled you with the very good advice that you should elect such a one who will be worthy in all respects towards the king, as you well know that should you elect someone against his wishes that your Church may well suffer great losses.>>

91
>>As you would never again have either peace or his friendship;  but would always be in dissent and discord with him. And as there is no need for you to do this that he should be angry with you, for if you were to elect one for whom he has great affection, all your needs would be met. 455

92 The members of the chapter deliberated in council. They called to them the bishop of Chichester, the bishop of Exeter and Richard de Luci - their feudatory - so that they could give their opinion to the church of the Holy Trinity. In their soul and conscience they gave the advice which seemed to them the best. 

93 They so much influenced and guided the decision of the assembly that all, unanimously, young and old, agreed to elect Thomas to this dignity. All the lords agreed with this decision. They believe that the King will consent to it. 

94 No one could choose a clerk who is more honest or who can make their church more prosperous and is better regarded by the king; and if they do what they please, the church can draw great advantages. 

95
This is what the monks have firmly decided. The great nobles went to the city of London and assembled all the notables of the country; bishops and abbots meet in full: the prior of the Holy Trinity was also there. 

96
They elected and acknowledged Thomas as archbishop, without any opposition from laymen or clerics other than that of the bishop of London, who expressed his discontent. According to him, Thomas had been a persecutor of the holy Church; it is very unjustly that he should obtain this dignity. 

vv. 481-510 

97
Thomas himself, in spite of all, had opposed his own election. It was not worthy, he said, to wear this venerable priestly garment: he had destroyed the holy Church, put his law on the auction, and incessantly persevered in this error: they had elected him. With tears in his eyes, he asked that his appointment be suspended.

98
"My son, you will be archbishop," replied the bishop of Winchester; if you have been wicked when you have served an earthly lord, try to better serve, and with more eagerness, the heavenly lord. You were a wolf to the sheep; be a pastor and a priest now. De Saill persecutor you will reform and transform yourself into Paul. "

99
Thus, in jubilation, they elevated him to the dignity of archbishop, since the clergy, unanimous, elected and called to this function. The King, however, had asked the judges and the clergy by a letter, which they did not mention, to postpone his appointment. That's why they hurried. 495

100
I do not know why the king wished to retract so quickly. He understood, I think, that he could no longer make Thomas, whose situation changed completely, the agent of his will, and that the latter would not allow the rights of the holy Church to be flouted. But no one can undo what God wanted. 500

191
It may also be supposed that the king realized that Thomas had faithfully served him in all circumstances; he would never find such a servant; it was painful for him to abandon his service. Nevertheless he was introduced as the new archbishop to the son of King Henry. [Henry II]. 505

102
Had already given the kingdom to his son, that he might surely inherit it, whatever might happen to himself. He had received the homage and the oath of fidelity of all his vassals. In his letter to the judges, the king assured them that he would ratify everything they would decide. 510



103
This is why the result of the election was presented to the prince and to those to whom the king had delegated his powers. They approved and confirmed it. The bishop of Winchester, who was full of wisdom, did not wish to be reproached on any occasion. 515

104
He had informed the prince and the great: "Lords," he said, "listen to me for a few moments. This man was the bailiff and confidant of the king; we have elected him and you have ratified our choice; we now want you to proclaim absolutely quits. 520

105
He was the administrator and judge of the kingdom; he had at his disposal all the revenues of the king. His Church demands that he be discharged for his accounts, free from all his obligations of service and other constraints: whatever may happen thereafter, he must not be in a difficult situation. " 525

106
The king's judges, who had received the assurance that all their decisions would be ratified by the sovereign, and the prince himself had proclaimed him quit for his accounts and for all the rest; they brought him into the world of the Church and raised him with great joy to the dignity of the Archbishop. 530 

107 Shortly afterwards, in enthusiasm, they took him to Canterbury, received him and sacred bishop with great marks of honor. However, he did not immediately change his clothes: by keeping his coat he would not show what he had in his heart. 535

108
The great lords, amongst themselves, often grumbled at seeing him penetrate the choir clothed in a long coat. They did not know the feelings God had created in his heart. One of his intimates had blamed him; he related to him the dream which a monk had made.  540

109 The monk was asleep, God appeared to him and said, "Go quickly to the Chancellor; Tell him I order him to take the monk's habit and do it quickly. If he refuses, I shall never cease tormenting him, and misfortune will overwhelm him all his life. 545

110 "The Archbishop who had listened to him burst out laughing. He revealed a part of his thought; but it was to God alone that he revealed the depths of his heart, God who had chosen and called him before his birth. Indeed, he had already completely changed from what he had been. 550

111 As soon as he was invested with the dignity of archbishop, he abandoned his bad habits and worldly activities. He firmly governed the clergy and the holy Church. He stood ready to strike the sword of righteousness; neither fear nor covetousness could induce him to renounce it. 555

112
He sustained and cherished all he ought to love; he abandoned and rejected all that he was to hate; he did not consent to make the king's service triumph over God. He clothed the poor, nourished them and kept them up; he pains, as much as he could, to serve the Lord God. 560

113 Since he was their master, their guide, and their father, the monks told him, he must be their abbot; as long as he was their abbot, he must have the habit and style of life. He was to be reborn in the office with which he was invested; the honor of God is not adapted to the secular habit. 565

114
The regular canons did not wish to suffer an archbishop or bishop to wear a monk's garment. To a monk as to a dead one gives a black cuirass and the wearing of the frock is not suitable for any prelate. Very decisive testimony proves the correctness of their point of view.  570

115
The clergy of his entourage also expressed his opinion: if he had been a monk at the beginning and was now raised to the archbishop's palace, he must abandon monastic life and order. Since he lives with the clerics, he must wear the common habit. It is not as a monk that he will exercise the archiepiscopal power 575

116
Tormented on three sides by such arguments, he opened himself to a man of great value, the prior of Kenilworth; the latter has lighted his clothes. He took ecclesiastical garments and abandoned civilian clothes; he had the exterior appearance of a canon, but wore worn clothes. 580 

117
He did not want to wear clothes too ostensibly religious but to associate on his body the clothes of both orders, secular and regular. Wishing to conceal his monastic affections, he had under his cloak a cushion, the sides and sleeves of which he had shortened; on his flesh, he wore the hat to further afflict his body.  585

118
He did not wish to renounce assuming his monastic status, either because of the vision which God made known to him, or because none of those who, in the exercise of this function, wished to adopt an exclusively secular attitude, could not never experience a successful career. In fact, God punished two prelates who had abandoned their monkish state. 590

119
The Pope caused Stigand to be deposed, and he was put to death in a dungeon. God caused Aelfsige to perish at the passage of Great St. Bernard; the latter had his mare ripped open, it was in vain to place his feet in his entrails, he died of cold in the beast which could not warm it.  595

References

Frank Barlow (16 August 1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Frank Barlow (16 August 1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket. Chapter XV: How Thomas was elected Archbishop. 1875. pp. 71–.

W. L. Warren (28 November 1977). Henry II. University of California Press. pp. 455–. ISBN 978-0-520-03494-5.

Ælfsige

Death of Ælfsige from exposure in the Alps whilst on his way as Archbishop of Canterbury elect to fetch his pallium from the Pope at Rome in 959.

Ælfsige (d. 959): doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/192 

Alexander R. Rumble (2012). Leaders of the Anglo-Saxon Church: From Bede to Stigand. Aelfsige - Died of exposure in 959 crossing the Alps on his way to Rome to fetch his pallium: Boydell Press. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-84383-700-8.

Linda Tollerton (2011). Wills and Will-making in Anglo-Saxon England. Bishop Ælfsige of Winchester death in Alps in 959: Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 116–7. ISBN 978-1-903153-37-6.

William of Malmesbury. Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum Libri Quinque. Liber I.18: Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-1-108-04886-6.

Mongiu [mons Jovis/Montjoie] 

Mungiu. [Muntioye]. The mountain or pass of Great St. Bernard ..

George B. Parks (1954). The English traveler to Italy. 1. The Middle Ages (to 1525). Ed. di Storia e Letteratura. pp. 186–.



Stigand



Sunday, 24 September 2017

Becket as Chancellor, "Second after the King".

Becket, as Chancellor, was considered by Peter of Celles [Abbot of La-Celle] to be "Second only to the King". He wrote in

Letter 72,  to Thomas Becket January 1855 x May 1162
Early Letters of Peter of Celle, p. 328/9-
Peter (of Celle, Bishop of Chartres) (2001). The Letters of Peter of Celle. Oxford University Press. pp. 328–. ISBN 978-0-19-820445-9.

...
Secundus post regem in quattuor regnis quis te ignorat?
...

Who is ignorant [of the fact] that you are second after [only to] the king in the four kingdoms?

[First might be considered to be the Chief Justiciar.]

References


James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Volume 5 MTB Letter 2  Cambridge University Press. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.





Thursday, 10 August 2017

Investiture Controversy: Canons of Pope Urban II

The following Canons were reported by Anselm archbishop of Canterbury to Henry I after he had been recalled from exile by Henry following his coronation, and seizure of the crown following the death of his brother William Rufus. Henry offered to give Anselm his archbishop's see back if he would do homage and swear fealty to him for it. Anselm refused on the grounds of these canons which forbade him to accept such an arrangement. Henry was none too pleased with him, Thus began the Investiture Crisis in England. 


At the Council of Clermont in November 1095 Pope Urban II had announced the following Decrees

Concilii Claramontani

Canon XV. — Nullus ecclesiasticum honorem de manu laici accipiat. 
Ut nullus ecclesiasticorum aliquem honorem a manu laicorum accipiat. 
Ut clericus nullum ecclesiæ honerem a laicali manu recipiat.

Canon XVI. — Ut principes investituras non faciant. 
Interdictum est, ne reges vel alii principes aliquam investituram de ecclesiasticis honoribus faciant.

Canon XVIl. — Ut episcopus aut presbyter fidelitatem laicis non faciat.
Ne episcopus vel sacerdos regi vel alicui laico in manibus ligium fidelitatem faciat.


Canon 15.
No one may accept an ecclesiastic honour from the hand of a layman.
So that no-one may take any ecclesiastical honour from the hands of laymen.
So that no cleric may receive any ecclesiastical honour from the hand of a lay person.

Canon 16.
In order that princes may not perform investiture
It is forbidden for kings or other princes to invest anyone with ecclesiastic honours.

Canon 17
As a bishop or a priest they may not swear fealty to laymen.
No bishop or priest may make an oath of allegiance between the hands of a king or any other lay person.

References



Jacques Paul Migne (1854). Opera omnia. Patrologia Latina Tomus CLXII Migne. pp. 717–.

Johann Carl Ludwig Gieseler (1836). 726-1517. Carey, Lea, and Blanchard. pp. 173–.



John S. Ott (December 2015). Bishops, Authority and Community in Northwestern Europe, c.1050–1150. Cambridge University Press. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-1-107-01781-8.

Rosamond McKitterick (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History: pts. 1-2. c. 1024-c. 1198. Cambridge University Press. pp. 294–. ISBN 978-0-521-41410-4.

At the Council of Rome, in April 1099


Juvabit &c. describere verba Rogerii Hoveden, parte annalium priore. Habent enim de hac synodo peculiare non nihil. Anno, inquit, MXCIX. Urbanus papa tertia hebdomada paschae magnum concilium tenuit Romae, in quo excommunicavit omnes laicos , investituras ecclesiarum dantes: & omnes, easdem investituras de manibus laicorum accipientes : necnon omnes , in officium sic dati honoris consecrantes. Excommunicavit etiam eos, qui pro ecclesiasticis honoribus, laicorum homines fiunt:

Dicens, nimis execrabile videri, ut manus, quae in tantam eminentiam excreverunt, quod nulli angelorum concessum est, ut Deum cuncta createm suo signaculo creent, et eundem ipsum pro saluti totius mundi, Dei Patria obtitibus offerant, Et ab omnibus acclamutum est "Fiat, fiat"
Hoveden Ann 1099 

In the year 1099, in the third week after Easter, pope Urban held a great council at Rome, at which he excommunicated all laymen who gave investiture to churches, and all who received investiture from the hands of laymen, as well as all those who consecrated persons for the duties of the office so bestowed. He also excommunicated those who, to gain ecclesiastical honours, did homage to laymen; affirming that it seemed most shocking that hands which had attained a distinction so high that it was granted to none of the angels, namely, by their touch to create the God who created all things, and in the presence of God the Father, to offer up his own self for the salvation of the whole world, should be reduced to such a pitch of disgracefulness or folly as to become the handmaids of those hands which by day and night are denied by obscene contact, or, used to rapine and the unrighteous shedding of blood, are stained thereby; upon which, all shouted with one consent, "So be it! So be it!" and thereupon the council was concluded.

Roger Hoveden (1868). Rerum Britannicarum Medii Ævi Scripture: Or, Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland During the Middle Ages. Longman. pp. 155–.

Roger (of Hoveden); Henry Thomas Riley (1853). The annals of Roger de Hoveden: Comprising the history of England and of other countries of Europe from A.D. 732 to A.D. 1201. H.G. Bohn. pp. 188–.

Urbanus 2 (1853). Patrologiae cursus completus Volume 151. Migne. pp. 251–.

Walter of Coventry (2012). The Historical Collections of Walter of Coventry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-1-108-05112-5.




Philippe Labbe (1730). Sacrosancta concilia ad regiam editionem exacta quae olim quarta parte prodiit auctior studio P. Labbei, & G. Cossartii ... Apud S. Coleti, et J.B. Albrizzi & Hieron. pp. 959–.

Philippe Levillain (2002). The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies. Psychology Press. pp. 822–. ISBN 978-0-415-92230-2.