Saturday, 6 August 2016

Garnier - Reconciliation with King Henry at Fréteval

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence). Ed Welberg (1922). La vie de saint Thomas Becket. C.W.K. Gleerup. pp. 141–9.
Stanzas 841-888
Lines 4201 - 4435


841 A mienuit ala al rei Henri parler.
" Vus estuvra, fait il, a l'arcevesque aler.
Enginniez sui, quant pais ne li voil graanter,
Car il m'out otrïé quanque soi demander.
Par les oilz Deu, ja mais n'i purrai recovrer ! 4205

842 " Or alez après lui, pensez de l'espleitier.
Dites lui qu'or prendrai ço que il m'offri ier. "
Dunc munta li evesques, ne s'i volt plus targier,
E enveia avant sa venue nuncier.
Quant saint Thomas l'oï, fist ses sumiers cargier. 4210

843 El chemin s'esteit mis, ne l'a pas atendu.
L'evesque le siwi tut a col estendu ;
E quant il vint a lui, si li ad respundu
Que ja mais a cel point u il l'orent eü
Ne vendreit pur nul humme, car contre raisun fu. 4215

844 A oreisun ala une feiz reis Henris
A Saint Denis de France. Mes li reis Loëwis
Ala a lui parler entresqu'a Saint Denis :
Preia lui, pur les sainz que il aveit requis,
Que l'um le peüst faire e l'arcevesque amis. 4220

845 Dunc furent a Munmartre li dui rei asemblé.
Un afaire unt entr'els ilueckes purparlé
Qu'il unt en Iveline a Saint Ligier finé.
Dunc l'a li reis de France dulcement aparlé
De Thomas l'arcevesque, qu'il fuissent acordé. 4225

846 Fait li reis d'Engleterre : " Se tut m'ert adrecié
Qu'il ad mespris vers mei e vers cels de mun fié,
Dunc porrium bien estre, sel loez, amaisié. "
Fait li buens reis de France : " Se tut ert retraitié,
E de ça e de la, n'i avreit amistié. 4230

847 "Laid est qu'entre vus ad si grant enemistié ;
Mais d'une part e d'altre seit del tut relaissié,
Que d'une part ne d'altre n'i ait rien calengié. "
Fait li reis d'Engleterre : " Jo m'en met el clergié. "
De Paris dunc ad un pur les clers enveié. 4235

848 Quant il furent venu, si l'a un dit al rei.
Mais li reis d'Engleterre ne lur dist ço ne quei.
Mais li buens reis de France ne l'en laissa pas kei ;
Dist lui qu'il se menout vers Deu a grant beslei,
Quant a sun arcevesque ne porte amur ne fei. 4240

849 Tant li dist li bons reis e tant le bastuna,
Que li reis d'Engleterre li dist e graanta
Que de tute sa rente la meitié li rendra,
E a lui e as suens, de quanque pris en a,
E en la curt de Rume de l'altre se metra.  4245

850 E dit bien e pramet qu'il li fera aveir,
E a lui e as suens, senz faille cel aveir,
Qu'a lur besuing l'avrunt tut e a lur moveir ;
Pais e amur avrunt de lui e de sun eir.
Fait li reis Loëwis : "Jo li ferai saveir." 4250

851 Dunc l'a einsi li reis l'arcevesque nuncié.
Dunc l'unt d'ambesdous parz ensi covenancié.
Fait dunc li reis de France : " Se volez l'amistié,
Or n'i ad mais que vus seiez entrebaisié. "
Fait li reis Henris : " N'iert de ma part otrïé ! 4255

852 "Jo ai juré, fait il, que ja nel baiserai.
Baisier cent feiz pur mei a mun fiz le ferai,
E a lui e as suens pais e amur tendrai
E lur possessiuns e rentes lur rendrai,
Ne ja menur amur ne lur en porterai. " 4260

853 Dunc l'ala li buens reis l'arcevesque nuncier.
Saint Thomas respundi : poi li fu del baisier,
Mais qu'il li volsist pais e amur otrïer,
E quel peüst trover d'or en avant entier.
Dunc unt pris altre jor de la pais alïer. 4265

854 Dejuste Freteval, vers la Boce, fu pris
Li parlemenz qui fu pur cele pes asis.
Od les Franceis i fu li bons reis Loëwis,
E od le suen barnage i vint li reis Henris
E li mielz del clergié d'ambesdous les païs. 4270

855 Mais le seir, quant il furent a l'ostel repairié,
Si clerc l'unt durement blasmé e enchalcié,
Qu'il ne fait pes al rei e qu'il n'ad d'els pitié.
Maistre Guntiers l'en a ensement chalengié ;
E li sainz arcevesques einsi l'en respundié : 4275

856 "Maistre Guntier, fait il, vus desirez forment
D'aler en Engleterre ; ne m'en merveil neent.
Mais n'i avrez esté, ço sachiez veirement,
Quarante jurs entiers, tut adesseement,
Que n'i voldrïez estre pur cinc cenz mars d'argent. " 4280

857 Dunc a li arcevesques l'apostolie mandé
Qu'il out fait vers le rei, coment il out finé.
Or li mande e requiert, pur sa sainte bunté,
Al rei mand que tuit seient si pechié pardoné,
4285 Que l'arcevesque baist en pes e seürté. 4285

858 L'apostolie manda li ber de grant scïence
Que il li comandast, par sainte obedïence,
Le rei baisast de pais, venist en sa presence.
Madoc bailla les lettres, qui de l'aler contence ;
Il les bailla la pape, quant il en out licence. 4290

859 Erramment fist ses briés l'apostolies escrire :
Manda le rei Henri, qui d'Engleterre ert sire,
De pais baist l'arcevesque Thomas de Cantorbire
E del tut li parduinst e maltalent e ire,
Que Jesu Crist li seit de tuz ses pechiez mire ; 4295

860 Rende lui tut le suen, que rien n'en seit a dire
E a lui e as suens, quanque il purrunt dire.
Raisun e puissance ad de sa terre entredire,
Ne mie d'une sule, mais de tut sun empire ;
Ne puet mais pur nului la justise escundire. 4300

861 Par sainte obedïence a mandé saint Thomas
Que, s'il puet faire pes, qu'il ne la refust pas ;
Mais prenge s'en mult pres, ne s'en face puint quas.
Car l'apostolies ert de la guerre tut las ;
N'eut de tut'Engleterre qui valsist un sul as. 4305

862 Dunc ad fait l'apostolies al rei Henri aler
L'arcevesque Willame de Sanz, qui mult ert ber
(De bunté e d'onur n'out en France sun per),
L'evesque de Nevers, a la pais enformer,
E des altres plusurs, que jo ne sai nummer. 4310

863 Li reis Henris lur ad pramis e graanté
Qu'il fera volentiers ço qu'il li unt loé
E ço que l'apostolies li aveit comandé.
A la pardefin unt asis e purparlé
Que dejuste la Boche reserunt asemblé. 4315

864 L'arcevesques i vint Thomas od sa partie,
E li reis Loëwis od mult grant baronie,
E li reis d'Engleterre od riche conpaignie,
Arcevesque e evesque e clerc de grant clergie,
Pur faire cele pais, se Deus l'ad establie. 4320

865 Tant a reis Loëwis rei Henri enchalcié,
Arcevesque e evesque od cel altre clergié,
Dit qu'or frea tut ço qu'il li unt conseillié.
( Il cremi l'apostolie, qui l'aveit manecié.)
" N'i falt, funt il, fors ço que ne l'avez baissié. " 4325

866 Li reis dit : pur nul humme vivant nel baisera
Nel puet faire nel deit, serement fait en a ;
E le rei Loëwis sun seignur le vea.
Mais contre le baisier tel honur li fera,
Ainz qu'il s'en turt d'iluec, qui cent baisiers valdra. 4330

867 Tant se sunt d'ambes parz de l'acorde pené
Li bons reis Loëwis e evesque e abé,
Qu'ensemble sunt li reis e saint Thomas alé.
Si tost cum s'entrevirent, lués se sunt encontré,
E li reis Henri l'a, e il li, salué. 4335

868 Quant d'ambes parz quidierent e clerc e chevalier
Que li reis le volsist de bone pais baisier,
Fait il : " Sire arcevesque, a vus voil conseillier. "
Emmi le champ tut hors le mena del puldrier ; [p. 134]
Nului n'i apelerent, nuls n'i volt aproscier. 4340

869 Tant esturent ensemble li reis e saint Thomas,
Parlerent d'un e d'el, ore halt e or bas,
Que d'ambesdous parz furent d'els atendre tut las.
Nis dous feiz descendirent jus des palefreiz cras,
E dous feiz remunterent, que tuit distrent : " C'est gas ! " 4345

870 Sun estriu li teneit li reis al remunter ;
E quant li arcevesques le voleit refuser :
" Nel larrai, fet li reis, a ceste feiz ester ;
Mes pere estes en Deu, jo vus dei honurer. "
Grant bien i porent tuit qui ço virent, noter. 4350

871 La u parlout al rei saint Thomas a cheval,
De quisse en quisse sist, sovent changot estal,
L'une quisse en la sele e l'autre contreval ;
Car les braies de haire li firent si grant mal.
A grant orguil le tindrent cil qui ne sorent al. 4355

872 Saint Thomas e li reis furent mult lungement
Enmi le champ tut sul a estreit parlement ;
Un sul n'i apelerent de trestute lur gent.
Tut ço dunt il parlerent ne sai plenierement,
Mais partie dirrai del veir, mun escïent. 4360

873 Quant li reis l'out tut sul enmi le champ mené,
Fait il : " Sire arcevesque, mult m'avez demuré,
Car altre conseil m'unt a grant damage esté :
Puis que parti del vostre, ainc puis n'ai amendé,
Ainz en ai mult del mien despendu e guasté. " 4365

874 Fierement respundi li verais ordenez :
" Sire reis, fait li il, tels conseilz guerpirez,
E altres conseilliers d'or en avant avrez,
Tels qui tut vus dirrunt contre vos volentez.
Ja n'i avra un mot de quanque vus voldrez. 4370

875 - Tuz conseilz voil des ore, fait li li reis, laissier.
Fors sulement le vostre, u me voil apuier.
E nis tut mun reaume vus voldrai jo baillier,
Henri mun fil vus voil, e la guarde, chargier :
Plain pié de terre n'ai, si m'irai purcacier. 4375

876 - Veire, fait saint Thomas, ço deit um bien quidier!
Que laissiez vostre regne, que vus avez si chier,
E voz petiz enfanz, qui de vus unt mestier,
Augiez en altres terres autrui dreiz chalengier,
Ço ne vus voil jo pas loer ne conseillier. 4380

877 - Par les oilz Deu, fait il, tute la guerpirai,
E mun fil e mun regne tut vus comanderai.
- Certes, fait saint Thomas, ja ne la baillerai.
De terrïene honur mais ne m'entremetrai,
Car trop sui jo chargiez de celi que jo ai. 4385

878 " Mais se volez la terre e le regne laissier
Pur le servise Deu, e vus voilliez cruisier,
A Huun de Beauchamp, cel leal chevalier,
Vus lo jo vostre regne e voz fiz a baillier ;
E jo lur aiderai al regne conseillier. " 4390

879 De multes choses unt entr'els dous desputé
Dunt um ne m'a encore acointié n'acerté ;
Ne tut ne puet pas estre en mun livre noté.
De mainte chose l'ad li reis achaisuné,
E il aveit le rei durement querelé : 4395 

880 De lui e de ses clers, qui erent eissillé,
Ne de tutes lur rentes n'aveient demi pié,
De ses hummes, qui sunt leidi, pris e lïé,
Nis des petiz enfanz, qui erent dechacié
Od peres e od meres : il n'en aveit pitié. 4400

881 " C'est par vostre mesfait, fait li li reis Henris,
Qui hors de mun realme en alastes fuitis,
Senz ço que nuls eüst vers vus de rien mespris ; 
Pur ço vus enveiai e parenz e amis.
Mais tut ert adrecié, quant vendrez el païs. 4405

882 - Sire, fait l'arcevesque, e de vostre fiz quei,
Que fesistes enuindre e coruner a rei
Par haste e senz nul preu, pur nuissance de mei ?
- Veirement i mespris, fait li reis, bien le vei ;
Mais bien ert adrecé, se j'amender le dei. " 4410

883 Fait il : " Des treis que dites, qui si l'unt coruné
Pur tolir la dreiture e cele dignité
La sainte mere iglise de Sainte Terneté
Que tuzdis ad eüe par ancïeneté,
L'enunctiun des reis, pur vus servir a gré ? " 4415

884 Fait li li reis Henris : " Ne m'entremetrai mais
De vus ne des evesques ; d'or en avant m'en tais.
Vostre dreit en pernez ; tut quite vus en lais. "
D'ambesdous parz diseient qu'entre els dous aveit pais ;
Car li reis li faiseit mult bel semblant adeis. 4420

885 Quant a l'arcevesque out li reis asez parlé,
Un parlement lur ad a Turs aterminé :
La ert, ço dit, parfait e tut par amendé ;
La avra l'arcevesque briés a sa volenté.
En pes e en amur s'en sunt d'iluec alé. 4425

886 Li reis li tint l'estriu purquant, quant il munta.
Dunc unt le rei preié, e de ça e de la,
Qu'il baisast l'arcevesque. Mais il dist nel fera,
Nel volt ore baisier ; serement fait en a.
Quant il vendra a Turs, idunc le baisera. 4430

887 L'evesque de Lisewis est dunc a lui alez.
Fait il : " Sire arcevesque, se vus plest, entendez.
Vus e le rei ad Deus par sa grace acordez ;
Ci est Gefrei Ridel, qui est vers vus meslez :
Or vus en requerum que vus li pardunez. 4435

888 - Sire evesque, fait il, pur suspendu le sai ;
E s'il volt adrescier le mesfait, jol prendrai,
E quanque li devrai puis faire, li ferai. "
Fait dunc Gefrei : " Suffrez ; s'il me het, jol harrai,
E s'il me volt amer, fait il, je l'amerai. "


841 At midnight the bishop [Belle-Mains of Poitiers] reached king Henry.
<<You must go,>> he [the king] said, <<to the archbishop. I deceived myself when I did not wish to grant him peace, for he consented to whatever I demanded. By the eyes of God! I will not be able to recover this position again.>>

842 <<When you go after him, think of how to deal with him. Tell him that I will now accept that which he offered to me yesterday,>>
Then the bishop mounted up, He did not want to tarry any longer, And a messenger was sent ahead, When St.Thomas heard this he loaded up his pack horses [sumpters].

843 He [Becket] set off along the road;he did not want to wait for the bishop.  The bishop followed him at break-neck speed, and when the bishop had caught up with him, he [Thomas] said he did not want to listen to him about this matter. That he would would not do this for anyone, because this was contrary to reason.

844 King Henry once went to Saint-Denis-de-France to pray. But king Louis went to speak with him together at Saint Denis. He begged him by all the saints that he could make friends with the archbishop.

845 Then the two kings came together at Montmartre to discuss there a matter between them which they had concluded at Saint-Léger-en-Yvelines. The king of France spoke to him [the king of England] gently about Thomas the archbishop so that he might come to an agreement with him. 4225

846 The king of England said: <<If everything would be put right, the wrongs that he has done to me and my tenants-in-chief [fiefholders] then we could well, if he approves, make up.>>
Then the king of France spoke well to him: <<If everything had to be re-negotiated again, this and that, then no affection will be achieved.>> 4230

847 <<It is disgraceful that there is so much disaffection between you, on both sides, one side and the other; however all can be overlooked and forgiven if neither side can bring a challenge against the other.>> 
Said the king of England: <<I shall submit this to the clergy.>>
Then messengers were sent to Paris to fetch some men of the Church. 4235 

847 <<It is sordid that there is so much hostility between you; but were one side or the other to abandon all this then neither side would have anything to challenge the other about.>>

The king of England said: <<I will put this to the experts.>> Then a messenger was sent to fetch one from Paris.Said the king of England: <<I shall submit this to the clergy.>>
Then messengers were sent to Paris to fetch some men of the Church. 4235

848 When they had come, one of them spoke to the king, but the king of England would neither speak to them nor about that. But the good king of France would not leave it at that; he said to him that he was behaving towards God in a very wrong way when he proferred neither love nor faith to his archbishop. 4240

849 The how so many times the good king [of France] spoke with him, the how so many times he reproached him that the king of England said to him and acceded to the following: that of all the rents [monies] taken from Becket and his men he would give back half, and submit the other half to the decision of the [papal] court in Rome. 4245

850 And well he [king Henry] said and promised that he would let them have this money both he [Becket and his men without fail, funds which would cover their needs and for their journey [back to England?]. They would also have peace and love from him and his heir.
King Louis said: <<I will let him [Becket] know.>> 4250

851 Then it was so that king [Louis] informed the archbishop. Then it was thus that both parties came to an agreement. Then the king of France said [to king Henry]: <<If you now desire friendship you should give each other the kiss of peace.>>
Said king Henry: <<That is something I will not agree to do.>> 4255

852 <<I have sworn on oath,>> said he, <<that I will not kiss him. I will have him kissed a hundred times on my behalf by my son. To him and his men I will tender peace and love, and give back to them their possessions and rents. Nor will I show them any less love for this.>> 4260

853 Then the good king went to the archbishop to tell him this. Saint Thomas replied that the kiss was of little importance to him, but that if he wants to concede peace and accord [love] then he ought to prove to be from now on sincere; then they agreed to discuss the peace on another day. 4265

854 Nearby Fréteval on the way to La Beauce the council was convened, summoned for this peace. With the French the good king Louis came, and with his barons came king Henry, and with both of them the best of their scholars came. 4270

855 But that evening when he came back to his lodgings,  his clerks blamed him [Becket] for a long time and pestered him that he had not made peace with the king, and that  he had not shown any pity towards them. Master Gunther likewise challenged the saintly archbishop who replied to him thus:  4275

856 <<Master Gunther,>> he said, <<you desire fervently to go to England. There is nothing marvellous about that. But you will not have been there for forty days , that you would soon truly learn that you would not want to remain there not even for five hundred marks in silver.>> 4280

[Master Gunther  of Winchester, one of Becket's clerks living in exile with him.]

857  The archbishop sent a letter to the Pope explaining what he had discussed with him [the king at Montmartre], and the outcome of their talks. Now he begged his holy goodness to send a letter to the king telling him that all his sins would be forgiven if only he would make the kiss of peace with the archbishop and grant a pledge of safety.  4285

858 Showing great presence of mind our noble hero sent a letter to the Pope asking him to command him under holy obedience to go into the presence of the king [Henry] and give him the kiss of peace. Madoc was entrusted to deliver the letters, and without further discussion he handed them to the Pope when he received permission to do so. 4290

859 Immediately the Pope had the letters drawn up: he sent one to king Henry who was suzerain of England, [telling him] to give the kiss of peace to archbishop Thomas of Canterbury, and to pardon him totally of all feelings of bad will and hate towards him, that Jesus Christ would cure all his sins for this. 4295

860 Return to him all his men, that nothing not of his see to say and to him and own quanque they could say.
By legal right he had the power to lay an interdict upon his land, not just one alone but on the whole of his empire; no one the justice hide 4300

861 By holy obedience St. Thomas was ordered  that if he could make peace, that he was not to refuse it; but to take it up because the Pope was fed up with the warring and had not received from England the value of one sou [shilling]. 4305

862 Then the Pope sent to king Henry archbishop William de Sens, who was a very wise man, of a goodness and honour of whom no one in France was his equal, and also the bishop of Nevers and many I know not how to name, for to establish the peace. 4310

863 King Henry promised and conceded to them that he would willingly follow their counsel and do what the Pope had commanded. They agreed and finally decided that a new meeting should take place on the edge of La Beauce. 4315

864 Archbishop Thomas came there with his party, and king Louis with many grand barons, and the king of England with a splendid company, archbishop, bishop, and clerics of grand clergy, all for to make this peace, if God decided it to be so. 4320

865 King Henry was beset a great deal by king Louis, the archbishop, bishortp and the other clergy. They had all come together and he was counselled by them. He feared the Pope that which he had threatened to do. 
<<There is only one thing missing: giving him the kiss of peace.>> 4325

866 The king said that there is no one living in the world for whom he would give this kiss, and no one could make him do it, for he had made an oath. And he even refused to do it for his liege lord,  king Louis. In return, he said that before he left from there, he would do him such honour that would be worth a hundred kisses. 4330

867 From one side and then the other, the good king Louis, the bishops and the abbots, all took such pains over the peace that finally the king and St. Thomas  did meet one another. As soon as they saw each  other, they came together each one towards the other and greeted one another. 4335

868 When everyone on both sides, clerics and knights, believed that the king was going to give him a good kiss of peace.
He said, <<Sire archbishop, I would like to confer with you in private.>>  He led him into the middle of a field off the dry roadway. They did not summon anyone to join them, and no one approached them.

869 They stayed together for a long time. The king and St.Thomas spoke to one another, first about one matter and then another, in a loud voice, then in a low one. The two camps tired of waiting for them. Twice they descended from their palfreys, and twice they remounted them. Everyone said: <<How absurd.>>

870 The king held St.Thomas' stirrup as he remounted. And when the archbishop wanted to refuse him, he said: <<I will not let you do this.>>
The king responded: <<But you are made to be my father in God. I must do you honour.>> Everyone who witnessed this noted this was a grand gesture.

871 Whilst St.Thomas was speaking to the king on the back of his horse, he did not keep still, but often changed his position on his saddle from one side to the other, first sitting on one buttock then on the other, keeping one thigh on the saddle and letting the other hang down the side [of his horse]. This was because his breeches which were made of coarse goat's hair were making him feel uncomfortable. Those who knew nothing about this considered this behaviour to be a huge insult [to the king].

876 <<Truly,>> said St. Thomas, <<this one must well imagine. Would you really abandon your kingdom which you hold so dear and your young children who have need of your experience, and go digging your trough in other lands and challenging others' rights [to them]?>>

877 <<By the eyes of God!>> he said, << I would give up all and my son and my kingdom. You will have command of everything.>>
<<For certain,>> said St. Thomas <<I will not let you hand it over. And I will no longer become involved in worldly matters as I am much too weighed down with that which I already have.>>

878 <<But if you want to leave the land and the kingdom for the service of God, and wish to take up the Cross [go on crusade], then let it be handed to Hugh de Beauchamp who is a loyal knight to whom you may entrust your kingdom and your son; and I will assist them with my advice to rule the country.>>

879 Of many other matters which were disputed between them there are some which I am still not acquainted with any certainty. It is not possible to mention everything in my book. Of the things which he held against the king, and the occasions over which he and the king had quarreled:

[And Guernes then lists some of Becket's grievances.]

880 On him and on his clerks who had been exiled not all of the rents of their land [benefices] not one half of a square foot had been returned to them; of having maltreated his men, seizing and having them bound; and how even to some little children he had showed no pity, driving them out away from their fathers and mothers.

881 <<It is all because of your wrongdoing,>> king Henry said to him, <<when you ran away, out of my realm, without telling anyone. This is why I sent to you your friends and relatives. But all will be addressed when you return to the country.>>

882 <<Sire,>> said the archbishop, <<and what about your son whom you had anointed and crowned as king in haste, and without damaging me?>>
<<Truly, I have committed a misdeed,>> said the king, << and I see it well; but it will be put right perfectly, if it must be put right.>>

883 Said he: <<What do you say about the three [bishops] who crowned him, wresting away the legal right from the holy mother church of the Holy Trinity [Canterbury], the ancient customary right which it has always had to anoint kings, and about how they [the three] served you at your pleasure?>>

884 Said king Henry to him: <<I will not come between you and the bishops: from now on as before I will remain silent. Take up your rights. I leave it all to you.>>
Both sides said that peace had been made between the two of them, as the king was seemingly behaving very courteously towards him [Becket] all the time.

885 When the king had spoken enough with the archbishop it was formally agreed that they would meet [on a fixed date] at an assembly [Parliament/King's Grand Council?] at Tours. There he [the king] said to him [Becket] the whole matter would be concluded in full. The archbishop would have the letters [of safety conduct/right to return] that he wanted. And in peace and affection they departed from there.

886 The king held his stirrup for him whereby he [Becket] could mount his horse. And those around, here and there, begged the king to give the archbishop the kiss [of peace]. He said he was not able to do  this because of  his oath, but that when they came to Tours he would give him the kiss there.

887 The bishop of Lisieux [Arnulf] then went to him. He said: <<My lord archbishop please listen. By grace of God you and the king have reached an accord. This is Geoffrey Ridel who has quarreled with you. Now i would enteat you to pardon him.>>

888 <<Sire bishop,>> he said, <<I know that he is suspended. If he wants to put right his misdeed I will accept it; and afterwards in whatever I have an obligation to do for him, I will do it.>>
Geoffrey then said: <<You suffer this, If he hates me, I will hate him, and if he wants to show me love then I will love him.>>



Thursday, 16 June 2016

Equivalence of Rank - Secular Postions with Ecclesiastical Ones

Gilbert, bishop of Limerick, around 1139  produced a document about hierachy in the Western Church on the equivalence in hierachical rank of ecclesiastical posts to secular ones.

As  far as I know this document had no official status.

Patrologia Latina Tome 159: Cols 997-1004
De Statu Ecclesiae




Rosamond McKitterick (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History: pts. 1-2. c. 1024-c. 1198. Footnote 2: Cambridge University Press. pp. 368–. ISBN 978-0-521-41410-4..

Coniungitur autem imperator papae, rex primati, dux archipontifici, comes episcopo,
miles sacerdoti, quia istae personae pares illis saecularibus iure decernuntur.

Joined with the Emperor is the pope, the King with the primate, the Duke with the archbishop,
The Earl/Count with a bishop, The knight with a priest, because it is decreed that these parsons are equal to those secular law voted.


Wednesday, 15 June 2016

The Becket Conflict

A very succinct summary of what the Becket Conflict was all about and its causes, and origins has been written in German:-

 
by Wejwod Marek (2000)
Automated Translation by Google Translate - http://bit.ly/1tsl1H5

Herbert of Bosham describes the Conflict:-


James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket. Volume III Herhert of Bosham Vita S. Thomae Liber III Cap. 24: Cambridge University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6.

O rex et o pontifex, quorum utrumque Dei apprehendit emulatio! Hic zelat populi sui pacem, alter vero cleri sui libertatem.

O King, O Pontiff, both of whom vying with each other have the zeal to be the equal of God, which has taken hold of both of them! one desirous for the peace of his people, the other for the liberty of his clergy.


Herbert of Bosham puts his summary of the Conflict into two chapters

Fisher, M. Ann Kathleen, "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket By Herbert Bosham (Part Two)" (1947).
Master's Theses. Paper 171.

Book III
p.47  §23. The King Declares in Favor of the Peace of His People
p.49  §24. The Archbishop Declares in Favor of the Liberty of His Clergy.

In Latin:
Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury
Vita Sancti Thomae
Auctore: Hereberti De Boseham
Liber III: Capitula 23 et 24

...
...

Monday, 13 June 2016

John of Salisbury Blames Satan

John of Salisbury in his hagiography on the Life of Saint Thomas Becket, §12 blames Satan for the Troubles.

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Cambridge University Press. pp. 273–. ISBN 978-1-108-04926-9.

Patrologia Latina
Ioannes Saresberiensis Alanus Tewkesburiensi
VITA SANCTI THOMAE, AUCTORE IOANNE SALISBURIENSI

Jacques-Paul Migne (1894). Patrologiae cursus completus Latina. Tome 190. Brepols..

Videns autem hostis antiquus tantum virum Ecclesiae Dei plurimum profuturum, invidit, et ne sperata pace terra diutius frueretur, multos et magnos elegit discordiae concitatores: per quos in corde regis et curialium odii seminarium sparsit. (0200C) Orta siquidem his procurantibus quaestione super regni consuetudinibus et iure ecclesiastico, filios perditionis in perniciem sancti viri excitavit qui subvertere moliebantur Ecclesiae libertatem. Sed cum omnes opprimerentur, Cantuariensis Ecclesia ipsum magis angebat, cuius potestati honori et utilitati plurimum derogabatur, insurgentibus in eum primum Rogero Eboracensi archiepiscopo, deinde proceribus multis, et his qui fidelitate et beneficiis Ecclesiae tenebantur obnoxii et ipso rege prohibente saepius et pertinacius ne in subditos culpis exigentibus canonicam iustitiam exerceret. Potestas enim laica in res et personas omnium pro libito ecclesiastico iure contempto, tacentibus aut murmurantibus episcopis, potius quam resistentibus usurpabat. (0200D) Conatus est ergo rex archiepiscopum promissis et blanditiis ad suum inclinare consensum. Sed vir Domini, fundatus in petra et solidatus, nec blanditiis emolliri potuit, ut a cultu iustitiae deviaret, nec minis terreri.

Translation

"Nevertheless the ancient enemy [Satan] when he saw that the very great man of the Church of God [Becket]  would very soon do much good, he became envious. And lest the peace on Earth which was for a long while being enjoyed he [Satan] chose many from the great [of the land], including the king and members of his court, through whose hearts he could use them as instigators of discord, and to scatter seeds of hate, there indeed, by instigating issues over the customs of the realm and the law of the Church, But even though all the Churches were being suppressed, the Church [See] of Canterbury caused him [Becket] the greatest anxiety, most of whose power, honour, and usefulness were being taken away [from it] by the rising up into first place of Roger archbishop of York,  and then by the guilty, including many magnates and those who owed fealty and held benefices of the Church. And even the the king often more stubbornly disallowed the purging of the sins of  his subjects by means of the exercise of canonical justice [Canon Law]. Indeed the temporal power seized goods and persons entirely at its own pleasure holding in contempt ecclesiastical law, with the bishops remaining silent or murmuring, rather than resisting. The king tried with promises and flatteries to incline the archbishop to his point of view. But the man of the Lord, who was founded on rock and firm in intent, neither could he be placated by flatteries, which might deviate him from serving justice, nor could he be terrified by threats."